Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Crystallization Of Particulates And Proteins

Title Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Crystallization Of Particulates And Proteins
Author:
, Elsevier 2001
2001
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383730301800545
More details: Publisher Summary The chapter overviews the methods for producing ordered two-dimensional arrays from colloid particles and proteins in relation to their physical mechanisms and driving forces. The chapter focuses on the method for obtaining particle and protein two- dimensional arrays in evaporating liquid suspension films. The respective mechanism of two-dimensional crystallization is based on the fact that the decrease of the film thickness (because of evaporation) forces the particles to enter and/or deform the liquid interface that automatically ?«£switches on?�? the strong attraction because of the capillary immersion force. The chapter describes the the occurrence and advantages of two-dimensional array formation over a liquid substrate: fluorinated oil and mercury. The particle size separation during two-dimensional crystallization and the methods for obtaining large two-dimensional crystalline coatings on solid substrates are described in the chapter. This chapter considers only the formation of two-dimensional arrays in free foam films and their observation by electron cryomicroscopy, which ensures an excellent structure preservation of delicate vesicles or molecular complexes. The chapter reviews the various applications of particulate two-dimensional arrays in optics, optoelectronics, nano-lithography, microcontact printing, in fabrication of nanostructured surfaces for catalytic films and solar cells, as well as the usage of protein two-dimensional crystals for immunosensors and extremely isoporous ultrafiltration membranes?��for creation of bioelectronic and biophotonic devices.

Chapter 6 Friction

Title Chapter 6 Friction
Author:
, Elsevier 1981
1981
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167892208706795
More details: Publisher Summary The friction between two solid surfaces in solid-state contact is the resistance to tangential motion of one surface over the other, whether that motion be sliding, rolling, or rubbing contact. There are two types of friction, static and dynamic. Static friction is the force required to initiate motion between two solid surfaces, or the force necessary to break the junctions that form at the interface between two solid surfaces. Dynamic friction is the friction associated with one surface sliding, rolling, or rubbing over another. Many compounds are added to conventional oils to act as extreme pressure or anti-wear additives in lubricants. There are also solid film lubricants that are applied to surfaces to reduce adhesion, friction, and wear. Many of these compounds rely on a reaction with the solid surface to provide a protective surface film. The coefficient of friction is the frictional force divided by the load applied to the two surfaces in contact.

Chapter 5 Adhesion

Title Chapter 5 Adhesion
Author:
, Elsevier 1981
1981
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167892208706783
More details: Publisher Summary When two solid surfaces are brought into contact, adhesion or bonding across the interface can occur. If two solid surfaces are clean and all of the adsorbates are removed, adhesion or bonding of one solid to another always occurs. The nature of the bond strength formed at the interface between the two solid surfaces is a function of the materials in contact. Both adhesion and cohesion are extremely important to the tribologist because they can dictate, to a very large extent, the adhesion and friction forces measured between two solid surfaces in contact. The function of a lubricant is to reduce and minimize the adhesive forces. Solids can be divided into two classes: (1) the relatively brittle materials, and (2) the plastic, or ductile, materials. The simplest way to demonstrate the cohesive bonding forces in a solid is to cleave it along its cleavage plane.

Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces

Title Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces
Author: Zumbuhl, D.
Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics and Quantum Dots, 2006
2006
http://zumbuhllab.unibas.ch/pdf/teaching/WS0607-MesoDots/061126\_WS0607\_SurfInterf.pdf
More details:

Indium sulfide microflowers: Fabrication and optical properties

Title Indium sulfide microflowers: Fabrication and optical properties
Author: Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Wen; Yang, Fan & Yang, Xiurong
Materials Research Bulletin, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025540809001755
More details: With the assistance of urea, uniform 2D nanoflakes assembled 3D In2S3 microflowers were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method at relative low temperature. The properties of the as-obtained In2S3 flowers were characterized by various techniques. In this work, the utilization of urea and l-cysteine, as well as the amount of them played important roles in the formation of In2S3 with different nanostructures. Inferred from their morphology evolution, a urea induced precursor-decomposition associated with the Ostwald-ripening mechanism was proposed to interpret these hierarchical structure formation. Furthermore, the optical properties of these In2S3 microflowers were investigated via UV?��vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies in detail. A. Semiconductors,B. Chemical synthesis,C. Electron microscopy,D. Luminescence,D. Optical properties

5.06 - Nanocrystal Synthesis

Title 5.06 - Nanocrystal Synthesis
Author: Zhong, H; Mirkovic, T & Scholes, G D
, Academic Press 2011
2011
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123743961000519
More details: Nanocrystals exhibit interesting optical, electrical, and chemical properties that are not found in their bulk counterparts. Quantum-confinement effects mean that small changes in their size and shape can have significant effects on physical properties and spectroscopy of nanocrystals. Size and shape control has been a hot topic during the development of the field of nanocrystal synthesis. Current success in colloidal chemistry has produced a great variety of nanocrystals with controlled size and shape, which could be used as functional materials for numerous applications. In addition to size and shape control, phase and composition control also provides additional space to tune the properties of nanocrystals. Further exploration on nanocrystal synthesis has led to the preparation of new-generation nanocrystals, including nanocrystal heterostructures and doped nanocrystals. In this chapter, we present an overview of nanocrystal synthesis with an emphasis on the solution synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Colloidal chemistry,Composition control,Core?��shell dots,Doped nanocrystals,Nanocrystal growth,Nanocrystal heterostructures,Nanocrystal synthesis,Phase control,Quantum dots,Semiconductor nanocrystals,Shape control,Size control
ISBN978-0-12-374396-1

Effect of silica wall microporosity on the state and performance of TiO2 nanocrystals in SBA-15 matrix

Title Effect of silica wall microporosity on the state and performance of TiO2 nanocrystals in SBA-15 matrix
Author: Zukerman, Roie; Vradman, Leonid; Titelman, Leonid; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Landau, Miron V & Herskowitz, Moti
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2008
2008
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387181108001856
More details: TiO2 guest phase was incorporated by internal hydrolysis (IH) method inside SBA-15 mesostructured silica matrices with high and low microporosity (14.2\% and 4.7\% of microporous pore volume, respectively). TiO2 phase was located inside the SBA-15 pores in form of small crystals with anatase structure without blocking the mesopores over wide range of loadings (8?��50\&\#xa0;wt\%) (N2 sorption, \{HRTEM\} and XRD). In the highly microporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-HM), the crystallization of titania anatase phase was detected at 150\&\#xa0;??C due to initiation of the crystallization process in the micropores. This is supported by the fact that the crystallization was significantly delayed and started at 350\&\#xa0;??C inside the SBA-15 with low microporosity (SBA-15-LM). Therefore, it was proposed that the formation of nanocrystalline titania in SBA-15 micropores initiates the nucleation stage thus enhancing the crystallization process of titania in the mesopores. Furthermore, micropores enhanced the dispersion of TiO2 phase. As a result, TiO2/SBA-15-HM adsorbed more vanadia than TiO2/SBA-15-LM. The catalytic activity in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of \{NO\} with ammonia was proportional to the vanadia content. Thus, V2O5-TiO2/SBA-15-HM catalysts were more active than V2O5?��TiO2/SBA-15-LM at all TiO2 loadings due to the higher vanadia content in TiO2/SBA-15-HM than in TiO2/SBA-15-LM. These results show that SBA-15 wall microporosity strongly affects the crystallization, state and performance of the guest phase confined in mesoporous channels of silica matrix. Confined phase,Crystallization,SBA-15 microporosity,Titania,\{NOx\} \{SCR\}

Fabrication of indium sulfide nanofibers via a hydrothermal method assisted by \AAO\ template

Title Fabrication of indium sulfide nanofibers via a hydrothermal method assisted by \AAO\ template
Author: Zhu, Xiaoyi; Ma, Junfeng; Wang, Yonggang; Tao, Jiantao; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, Zhongqiang; Xie, Lijin & Tian, Hua
Materials Research Bulletin, 2006
2006
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025540806000626
More details: $\beta$-In2S3 nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method with \{AAO\} membrane as a template at 150\&\#xa0;??C for 15\&\#xa0;h. \{XRD\} patterns indicated the perfect crystallization of $\beta$-In2S3. \{SEM\} images showed that the $\beta$-In2S3 nanofibers grew up from the channel ends of the \{AAO\} template. \{TEM\} images confirmed that the nanofibers had a high aspect ratio of ca. 40?��50 and diameters of about 10\&\#xa0;nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the $\beta$-In2S3 nanofibers indicated its potential applications in light-emission devices.

Hydrothermal syntheses and characterization of two tetramethylammonium templated indium sulfides

Title Hydrothermal syntheses and characterization of two tetramethylammonium templated indium sulfides
Author: Zhang, Chi; Liu, Jinming; Ji, Min & An, Yonglin
Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Elsevier B.V. June 2014
2014
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1387700314001452
More details: Crystal structure,Hydrothermal synthesis,Indium sulfide,Template effect,hydrothermal synthesis

Cubic clusters of indium chalcogenides with 2,2-bipyridine ligand, a comprehensive view of [InQ(phen/bpy)Cl]4 (Q\&\#xa0;=\&\#xa0;S, Se) compounds

Title Cubic clusters of indium chalcogenides with 2,2-bipyridine ligand, a comprehensive view of [InQ(phen/bpy)Cl]4 (Q\&\#xa0;\#xa0;S, Se) compounds
Author: Zhang, Ya-Ping; Lei, Zhi-Xin; Jiang, Jian-Bing; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Zhang, Xu; Bian, Guo-Qing & Dai, Jie
Inorganica Chimica Acta, 2011
2011
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020169311005652
More details: We have reported main group metal chalcogenido clusters of cubic [InQ(phen)Cl]4 (Q\&\#xa0;\#xa0;S (1) and Se (2); phen\&\#xa0;\#xa0;1,10-phenanthroline). Herein two new cubic clusters with ligand of 2,2?�?-bipyridine (bpy) have been synthesized by solvothermal technique, [InSe(bpy)Cl]4 (3) and [InS(bpy)Cl]4??H2O (4). The molecular structures and electronic states of compounds 3 and 4 are presented by comparing with those of 1 and 2. Though the clusters of 1?��4 are similar, their packing structures show diverse modes. Spectroscopic study and theoretical calculation indicate that introducing phen/bpy to chalcogenido clusters can decrease the energy gap of frontier orbitals from \{HOMO\} to \{LUMO\} due to the cluster to ligand charge-transfer (CLCT). Increasing the conjugated system of the organic ligand or using the heavier chalcogenido element might improve the photophysical absorption of the materials. Chalcogens,Charge transfer,Cluster compounds,Indium,Structure elucidation

Applied Surface Science Synthesis and magnetic properties of Cu-coated Fe composite nanoparticles

Title Applied Surface Science Synthesis and magnetic properties of Cu-coated Fe composite nanoparticles
Author: Zhang, Xia; Wang, Baosheng & Xu, Xinxin
Applied Surface Science, Elsevier B.V. 2010
2010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.01.092
More details:

Morphology and fluorescence spectra of rubrene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport

Title Morphology and fluorescence spectra of rubrene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport
Author: Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian; Wang, Liduo; Dong, Guifang & Qiu, Yong
Applied Surface Science, May 2007
2007
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169433207000232
More details: fluorescence spectrum,morphology,physical vapor transport,rubrene,single crystal

Main group coordination chemistry at low temperatures: A review of matrix isolated Group 12 to Group 18 complexes

Title Main group coordination chemistry at low temperatures: A review of matrix isolated Group 12 to Group 18 complexes
Author: Young, Nigel A
Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 2013
2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010854512002603
More details: The available data on main group (Groups 12?��18) Lewis acid?��base, donor?��acceptor, charge-transfer and van der Waals complexes stabilised by matrix isolation techniques are presented, tabulated and evaluated in conjunction with data from complementary gas phase experiments and computational chemistry. Charge transfer,Coordination complexes,Donor?��acceptor,Lewis acid?��base,Matrix isolation,van der Waals

Recent Developments in Main Group Chemistry

High yield???low temperature growth of indium sulphide nanowires via chemical vapor deposition

Title High yield?��low temperature growth of indium sulphide nanowires via chemical vapor deposition
Author: Zervos, Matthew; Papageorgiou, Pola & Othonos, Andreas
Journal of Crystal Growth, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022024809011063
More details: Indium sulphide nanowires (NWs) have been grown on Si via the reaction of In and InCl3 with \{H2S\} using chemical vapor deposition at temperatures as low as 250\&\#xa0;??C. We find that the growth of InxSy \{NWs\} via the direct reaction of In with \{H2S\} is hindered by the formation of InxSy around the source of In which limits its vapor pressure. Thus a low yield of InxSy \{NWs\} with diameters of ?��100\&\#xa0;nm, lengths up to ?��5\&\#xa0;$\mu$m and hexagonal crystals measuring ?��500\&\#xa0;nm across, were obtained between 500 and 600\&\#xa0;??C, but their growth was not uniform or reproducible. These exhibited weak, but nevertheless clear peaks, in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum corresponding to tetragonal $\beta$-In2S3 and orthorhombic InS. No \{NWs\} were obtained for TG?��500\&\#xa0;??C while for TG\>600\&\#xa0;??C we obtained a polycrystalline layer with oriented grains of triangular shape. In contrast, a high yield of InS \{NWs\} with diameters ?��200\&\#xa0;nm and lengths up to ?��2\&\#xa0;$\mu$m were obtained at temperatures as low as 250\&\#xa0;??C via the reaction of In and InCl3 with H2S. The sublimation of InCl3 enhances the vapor pressure of In and the growth of InS NWs, which organize themselves in urchin like structures at 300\&\#xa0;??C, exhibiting very intense peaks in the \{XRD\} spectrum, corresponding mainly to orthorhombic InS. Optical transmission measurements through the InS \{NWs\} gave a band-gap of 2.4\&\#xa0;eV. A1. Nanostructures,A3. Chemical vapor deposition processes,B1. Nanomaterials,B1. Sulfides,B2. Semiconducting materials

Morphological characterization of pentacene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport

Title Morphological characterization of pentacene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport
Author: Zeng, Xionghui; Qiu, Yong; Qiao, Juan; Dong, Guifang & Wang, Liduo
Applied Surface Science, January 2007
2007
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169433206010257
More details: growth mechanism,morphology,pentacene,physical vapor transport,single crystal

Substrates for flexible electronics: A practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties

Title Substrates for flexible electronics: A practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties
Author: Zardetto, Valerio; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea & Di Carlo, Aldo
Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, May 2011
2011
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/polb.22227
More details: decade,flexible films,indium tin oxide,introduction in the past,ito,naphthalate,pen,pet,polyethylene,polyethylene teraphthalate,substrates,the industry and consumers,the interest from both,toward flexible electronic and

Chemical vapor transport for the control of composition of low-volatile solids: II. The composition control of indium sulfides: Technique of the charge dilution

Title Chemical vapor transport for the control of composition of low-volatile solids: II. The composition control of indium sulfides: Technique of the charge dilution
Author: Zavrazhnov, A.Yu.; Naumov, A V; Pervov, V S & Riazhskikh, M V
Thermochimica Acta, 2012
2012
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040603110003692
More details: Considering chalcogenide transport processes with a participation of indium and indium sulfides in the closed system it was found that non-isothermal conditions are insufficient for a noticeable reversible indium transfer. The main reason for this fact was considered as a deficiency of indium halides with a high oxidation degree of indium which are in the equilibrium in the vapor with condensed indium or its lower sulfides. To provide chemical transport that is impossible in the usual experimental conditions a new way was proposed and applied implying dilution of a charge (source or getter of indium) with inactive diluent. One of the probable diluents is gold. The probability of reversible and selective chemical transport was proved for indium in the system ?«£indium sulfides ?�� vapor of In chlorides ?�� (Au?��In) charge?�?. Conditions for performing the non-destructive composition control of indium sulfides in the non-destructive chemical transport were determined. Non-destructive composition control,Selective chemical vapor transport

The 21st \{IUPAC\} International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics (ICCT-2010)

Study of the In???S phase diagram using spectrophotometric characterization of equilibria between hydrogen and indium sulfides

Title Study of the In?��S phase diagram using spectrophotometric characterization of equilibria between hydrogen and indium sulfides
Author: Zavrazhnov, A.Yu.; Kosyakov, A V; Naumov, A V; Sergeeva, A V & Berezin, S S
Thermochimica Acta, 2013
2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004060311300292X
More details: Abstract We have developed and put in practice a spectrophotometric procedure for hydrogen sulfide determination to study the phase diagram of the In?��S system using hydrogen as an auxiliary component. Elemental analysis of the hydrogen-containing vapor phase allows the principal thermodynamic properties of the indium sulfides in equilibrium with the vapor phase to be assessed in wide temperature and composition ranges. Our results confirm the existence of a narrow two-phase field between In3?��xS4 and In2S3?�? (low-temperature phase), which is bounded from above by the peritectic decomposition temperature of In2S3?�? (about 415\&\#xa0;??C). We have determined the temperature-dependent sulfur (S2) vapor pressure over condensed indium sulfides. For the equilibria studied in greatest detail, the present results correlate well with mass spectrometry data for indium sulfides. Auxiliary component method,Chemical vapor transport,Indium sulfides,Phase diagrams

Chapter 6 - Density of solid???Inorganic compounds

Title Chapter 6 - Density of solid?��Inorganic compounds
Author: Yaws, Carl L & Chen, Daniel H
, William Andrew Publishing 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780815515968500110
More details: Publisher Summary This chapter presents the density of solid for inorganic compounds in tabular form. The tabulation is arranged by alphabetical order such as Ag, Al, Ar, and Zr to provide ease of use in quickly locating the data by using the chemical formula. The compound name and chemical abstracts registry number (CAS No) are also provided in columns. Values for representative temperature and density at the representative temperature are given in the adjacent columns. The next column provides the code for the tabulation. In preparing the tabulation, a literature search is conducted to identify data source publications. Both experimental values for the property under consideration and parameter values for estimation of the property are included in the source publications. The publications are screened, and copies of appropriate data are made. These data are keyed into the computer to provide a database of values for compounds for which experimental data are available. The database also serves as a basis to check the accuracy of the estimation methods. Upon completion of data collection, estimation of values for the remaining compounds is performed. The compilations of CRC, Daubert and Danner, Landolt and Bornstein, and Yaws are used extensively for solid density. Many of the estimates are based on extending the liquid density to the triple point.
ISBN978-0-8155-1596-8

Effect of bath temperature on the electrodeposition of copper tin selenide films from aqueous solution

Title Effect of bath temperature on the electrodeposition of copper tin selenide films from aqueous solution
Author: Zainal, Zulkarnain; Kassim, Anuar; Zobir Hussein, Mohd & Hang Ching, Chuah
Materials Letters, June 2004
2004
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167577X04000904
More details: bath temperature,crystallinity,cu 2 snse 4,electrodeposition,thin films

Electrodeposition of CuInS2 from aqueous solution (II) electrodeposition of CuInS2 film

Title Electrodeposition of CuInS2 from aqueous solution (II) electrodeposition of CuInS2 film
Author: Yukawa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Katsumi & Koumoto, Kunihito
Thin Solid Films, 1996
1996
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609096085458
More details: Copper indium disulphide, CuInS2 thin films were successfully prepared by electrodeposition without usual heat treatment in \{H2S\} atmosphere. Thin films were deposited from acidic aqueous solution containinng CuSO4, In2(SO4)3 and Na2S2O3 at ?��0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 300?��1200 s. Single phase CuInS2 films were obtained at pH about 1.5 by the correct adjustment of the Cu2+/In3+ ratio, with the concentration of Na2S2O3 fixed at 400 mM. Well-crystallized films were obtained by annealing in vacuum at 673 K. From \{EDX\} analysis, it was found that the compound CuInS2 did not always exist in exact stoichiometry of Cu:In:S :1:2. The conduction type of the film changed from p to n in the indium-rich region. This result suggests the possibility of controlling the properties of thin films by varying the concentration of each chemical in the initial electrolytic solution. Deposition process,Electrochemistry,Solar cells,Sulphides

Optical and photoelectrical properties of $\beta$-In2S3 thin films prepared by two-stage process

Title Optical and photoelectrical properties of $\beta$-In2S3 thin films prepared by two-stage process
Author: Yoosuf, Rahana & Jayaraj, M K
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2005
2005
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024805000176
More details: $\beta$-In2S3 films were grown on glass as well as on quartz substrates by rapid heating of metallic indium films in \{H2S\} atmosphere. The effect of sulfurization temperature and time on the growth, structural, electrical and photoelectrical properties of $\beta$-In2S3 films has been investigated. Highly oriented single-phase $\beta$-In2S3 films were grown by the sulfurization technique. The morphology and composition of films have been characterized. The optical band gap of $\beta$-In2S3 is found to vary from 1.9 to 2.5\&\#xa0;eV when the sulfurization temperature is varied from 300 to 600\&\#xa0;??C or by increasing the sulfurization time. The electrical properties of the thin films have also been studied; they have n-type electrical conductivity. The photoelectrical properties of the $\beta$-In2S3 films are also found to depend on the sulfurizing temperature. A high photoresponse is obtained for films prepared at a sulfurizing temperature of 600\&\#xa0;??C. $\beta$-In2S3 can be used as an alternative to toxic CdS as a window layer in photovoltaic technology. Buffer layer,Chalcogenization,Solar cells,Sulfurization,Thermal evaporation,$\beta$-In2S3

A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, \NW\ Turkey

Title A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, \NW\ Turkey
Author: Yigit, Ozcan
Ore Geology Reviews, 2012
2012
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169136812000650
More details: The Tethyan Metallogenic Belt (TMB), extending from Europe through Anatolia to Iran, is one of the world's major metal producing belts, and consists of many sectors. Mineral deposits of the Biga Peninsula in northwestern Turkey exhibit, in many ways, the characteristics of mineral deposits found throughout the belt. Biga Peninsula tectonically forms the westernmost part of the Sakarya Zone and easternmost part of the Rhodope Zone at the intersection of Gondwana and Laurasia. The Biga Peninsula metallogeny research and exploration project created a \{GIS\} inventory of mineral deposits and prospects, and classified them genetically to evaluate the mineral deposit potential using genetic models based on descriptive data. The \{GIS\} database, consisting of 128 deposits or prospects, helped to generate new prospects and potential prospects. This field-based study indicated that the Biga Peninsula forms a prime target for gold?��copper exploration not only in Turkey but in the world. The current economically significant mineral deposits of the Biga Peninsula were shaped by Cenozoic calc-alkaline magmatism, ranging between 52 and 18\&\#xa0;Ma, and related to mainly collisional and post-collisional tectonic regime. Epithermal Au?��Ag deposits including high-(HS), low-(LS) and intermediate-sulfidation (IS) styles, porphyry Au?��Cu?��Mo and base-metal skarn systems are economically the most important. Though there are no currently economic examples of some of them in the Biga Peninsula, other deposit types include Carlin-like distal disseminated Au?��Ag, orogenic Au, especially listwanite hosted, volcanogenic Mn and U, lateritic (ferricrete) Fe deposits, carbonate replacement (CR) and placers. Several active metal mines, such as Balya, Arapucandere and Koru, are operating in the Biga Peninsula. Kucukdere Au?��Ag deposit in Balikesir is the only gold mine in the Biga Peninsula, except for by-product gold produced from base-metal deposits. Results of the study show current total gold endowment of the Biga Peninsula including reserves and/or resources is 9.18\&\#xa0;Moz gold [284.2\&\#xa0;t] contained in twelve different deposits. Of these only 6 contain significant gold [\>\&\#xa0;0.3\&\#xa0;Moz or 10\&\#xa0;t]. Halilaga porphyry and Agi Dagi and Kirazli \{HS\} epithermal systems have an ongoing resource estimate, and Halilaga is a candidate to be one of the largest Cu?��Au deposits not only in the Biga Peninsula, but in Turkey. Currently newly discovered Tepeoba is the largest porphyry Cu?��Mo?��Au deposit with known resources in the Biga Peninsula. Here, the first40Ar/39Ar step-heating age data conducted on some of the major \{HS\} epithermal gold deposits and causative intrusives in the Biga Peninsula are reported. Geochronological results from this project, evaluated with previous studies, indicate at least 3 phases of porphyry and 2 phases of high-sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization in the Biga Peninsula. The most important mineralizing phases and related host rocks for gold mineralization range from 38 to 22\&\#xa0;Ma. The Oligocene is especially important for economic epithermal and porphyry systems in the Biga Peninsula, which is comparable to deposits in the Oligo-Miocene Serbomacedonian-Rhodope metallogenic belt of the Balkan Peninsula in \{SE\} Europe. Biga Peninsula,Epithermal,Geochronology,Mineral exploration,Porphyry Au?��Cu?��Mo,Skarn,Tethyan metallogeny,Turkey

Indium and tin in basalts, sulfides, and the mantle

Title Indium and tin in basalts, sulfides, and the mantle
Author: Yi, Wen; Halliday, Alex N; Lee, Der-Chuen & Christensen, John N
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1995
1995
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703795003428
More details: The geochemistry of In and Sn are poorly understood, in part, because of difficulties in obtaining accurate concentrations for these elements in geological materials. Furthermore, InSn ratios in sulfides could be sufficiently high to facilitate the use of 115In?�?115Sn geochronology, if the separation and precise measurement techniques were available. In this paper we describe methods for the separation of In and Sn from silicates and sulfides. Indium can be measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) at very high sensitivity ( \> 13\%). However, its mass fractionation is difficult to correct reliably. Tin is more difficult to measure by \{TIMS\} because of its higher ionization potential. Both elements can be measured effectively using the new technique of MC-ICPMS, since the ionization efficiency is extremely high, molecular interferences are negligible, and mass fractionation in spiked In and Sn can be corrected by monitoring the mass bias in admixed Pd and Sb, respectively. Using these techniques, it is demonstrated that In and Sn concentrations can be measured reliably for silicates and sulfides. Indium and Sn data for international silicate rock standards are in excellent agreement with recommended values. The SnSm ratios determined for ocean island basalts (0113) are within the same range as those recently reported, where Sn was measured by spark source mass spectrometry. Indium is very uniform in \{OIB\} and behaves as a slightly incompatible trace element, comparable in bulk distribution coefficient to the heavy rare earths or Y. InY in 0113 is very uniform, averaging 0.0028 ?? 0.0005 (I$\sigma$), but is weakly related with PbCe, implying that these ratios may be partly controlled by sulfide at small degrees of partial melting. The similarity in average InY between OIB, N-MORB (0.0025) and the continental crust (0.0025), together with the similarity in SnSm in MORB, OIB, and continental crust contrasts with chalcophile/lithophile and siderophile/lithophile element ratios such as PbCe and WBa, which are high in the continental crust because of decoupling in the subduction environment. The overall behavior of both In and Sn within the silicate Earth is dominated by lithophile affinity. The primitive mantle is estimated to have InY .003 ??0.001, both higher and lower than previous estimates and corresponding to an In concentration of 14 ppb. Ignoring any In that may have been partitioned into the core, the corresponding total Earth concentration of \>10 ppb corresponds to \<85\% depletion relative to \{CI\} chondrites. This is less depleted than anticipated by at least a factor of 2, given the supposed volatility of In based on assumed condensation temperatures and depletions in volatile lithophile elements. There is no evidence that In has been segregated into the Earth's core. This can be explained if, during the earlier stages of accretion, under reducing conditions, In was too volatile to be transferred into the core. During the later stages of accretion, conditions may have been relatively oxidising such that In behaved as a lithophile element with higher condensation temperature rather than as a volatile chalcophile element. Hence, the InY ratio of Earth's primitive mantle may be representative of the mixture of volatile depleted and undepleted material that accreted in the inner solar system. \{SNC\} meteorites have a similar range of InY to the silicate Earth, suggesting Mars accreted from a similar mixture of material already depleted in In, and presumably other moderately volatile elements. In contrast, the InY ratio in lunar basalts ranges through four orders of magnitude from silicate Earth values in lunar soils to extremely In-depleted compositions. This is unlikely to be caused by heterogeneous distributions of extreme In depletion on the Moon as a result of volatile depletion. Rather, the more reducing conditions appear to result in In behaving as a relatively compatible trace element during lunar melting and differentiation. Although their behavior on Earth is strongly lithophile, In and Sn are sometimes enriched in sulfides and InSn can be sufficiently high in some sphalerite, chalcopyite, and tetrahedrite that the predicted 115Sn excess caused by decay of 115In in ancient sulfide deposits should be measurable with MC-ICPMS.

Variations of cell performance in ITO-free organic solar cells with increasing cell areas

Title Variations of cell performance in ITO-free organic solar cells with increasing cell areas
Author: Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Kim, Junkyung & Na, Seok-In
Semiconductor Science and Technology, March 2011
2011
http://stacks.iop.org/0268-1242/26/ia4010?keyossref.706ec37a8fb9e6f3285ca63a7a97eb41
More details:

Mn incorporation in CuInS2 chalcopyrites: Structure, magnetism and optical properties

Title Mn incorporation in CuInS2 chalcopyrites: Structure, magnetism and optical properties
Author: Yao, Jinlei; Rudyk, Brent W; Brunetta, Carl D; Knorr, Kathyrn B; Figore, Heather A; Mar, Arthur & Aitken, Jennifer A
Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2012
2012
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254058412006244
More details: The Mn-substituted CuInS2 compounds (CuIn1?��xMnxS2 with x?�0?��0.20 and Cu1?��yMnyInS2 with y?�0.05?��0.10) were synthesized using high-temperature solid?��state reactions. Single-phase materials with the chalcopyrite structure persist with up to 10\% of the Cu/In sites being replaced with Mn. The introduction of manganese results in a linear expansion of the lattice parameters as a function of Mn concentration, following Vegard's law. Rietveld refinements on a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data reveal a site preference of Mn for the In site under In-poor conditions and the existence of cation anti-site occupation, CuIn and InCu. The Mn substitution increases the anion displacement, accentuating the cation-anion bond length mismatch. The greater variance in the bond alternation and the addition of Mn d?��S p hybridization near the Fermi level result in a decrease in the bandgap by ?�?0.1?�eV. The CuInS2:Mn compounds display paramagnetic behavior with short-range antiferromagnetic interactions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests the presence of Cu+, Mn2+, and In3+ in the samples. Chalcopyrite,Diamond-like semiconductor,Dilute magnetic semiconductor,Photovoltaic,Solar cell,\{CISU\}

Semiconductor sensitization of colloidal In2S3 on wide gap semiconductors

Title Semiconductor sensitization of colloidal In2S3 on wide gap semiconductors
Author: Yasaki, Yoichi; Sonoyama, Noriyuki & Sakata, Tadayoshi
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, July 1999
1999
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022072899001849
More details: 3,colloidal in 2 s,semiconductor sensitization,spin coating method

Chapter 6 - Density of Solid ??? Inorganic Compounds

Title Chapter 6 - Density of Solid ?�� Inorganic Compounds
Author: Yaws, Carl L
, Gulf Publishing Company 2014
2014
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323286596000069
More details:
ISBN978-0-323-28659-6

Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles

Title Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles
Author: Xu, Ying; Al-Salim, Najeh & Tilley, Richard D.
Nanomaterials, January 2012
2012
http://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/2/1/54/
More details: Near-monodispersed water soluble SnS nanoparticles in the diameter range of 3?��6 nm are synthesized by a facile, solution based one-step approach using ethanolamine ligands. The optimal amount of triethanolamine is investigated. The effect of further heat treatment on the size of these SnS nanoparticles is discussed. Diffuse reflectance study of SnS nanoparticles agrees with predictions from quantum confinement model.diffuse reflectance,nanoparticles,tin sulfide,triethanolamine,water soluble

Electrospinning preparation and room temperature gas sensing properties of porous In2O3 nanotubes and nanowires

Title Electrospinning preparation and room temperature gas sensing properties of porous In2O3 nanotubes and nanowires
Author: Xu, Lin; Dong, Biao; Wang, Yu; Bai, Xue; Liu, Qiong & Song, Hongwei
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400510003229
More details: Porous In2O3 nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs) in cubic phase were fabricated via electrospinning and characterized by scan electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and \{N2\} adsorption experiments. The \{NTs\} had an average outer diameter of ?�?80\&\#xa0;nm and wall thickness of ?�?15\&\#xa0;nm, while the \{NWs\} had a diameter of ?�?120\&\#xa0;nm. The gas sensing properties of the prepared NTs/NWs were measured for H2S. The results demonstrate that the sensors had optimum and high responses to \{H2S\} at room temperature in dilute 1?��100\&\#xa0;ppm concentration range. They also display excellent selectivity, anti-interference and stability. The gas sensing mechanism at room temperature was attributed to the sulfuration of In2O3. The present electrospun In2O3 NTs/NWs have demonstrated the potential applied for \{H2S\} gas detection under room temperature. Electrospinning,Gas sensor,Indium oxide,Nanotubes,Nanowires

Structural analysis of indium sulphide thin films elaborated by chemical bath deposition

Title Structural analysis of indium sulphide thin films elaborated by chemical bath deposition
Author: Yahmadi, B.; Kamoun, N.; Bennaceur, R.; Mnari, M.; Dachraoui, M. & Abdelkrim, K.
Thin Solid Films, February 2005
2005
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0040609004004067
More details: chemical bath deposition,heat treatment,indium sulphide,structural analysis