### Effect of potassium hydrogen phthalate (C8H5KO4) on the one-step electrodeposition of single-phase CuInS2 thin films from acidic solution

Title Effect of potassium hydrogen phthalate (C8H5KO4) on the one-step electrodeposition of single-phase CuInS2 thin films from acidic solution
Author: Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Feng; Liu, Jingjun & Ji, Jing
Electrochimica Acta, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001346861000352X
More details: The effect of potassium hydrogen phthalate (C8H5KO4) as a special additive on the one-step electrodeposition of single-phase CuInS2 thin films from acidic solution (pH 2.5) was investigated in detail. The XRD, \{SEM\} and UV?��vis?��NIR characterization confirms that the addition of an adequate concentration of \{C8H5KO4\} (23\&\#xa0;mM) to the electrolytic bath containing 12.5\&\#xa0;mM Cu2+, 10\&\#xa0;mM In3+, 40\&\#xa0;mM S2O32?�� and 100\&\#xa0;mM LiCl can contribute greatly to the controllable growth of pure chalcopyrite CuInS2 films with uniform surfaces and an ideal band gap of approximately 1.54\&\#xa0;eV. Complexation studies of \{C8H5KO4\} with Cu2+ and In3+ in electrolytic solutions indicated that \{C8H5KO4\} can complex Cu2+ more strongly than In3+ and move the electrode potentials of Cu2+ and In3+ near each other as determined by polarization analysis. Furthermore, the potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis performed in a series of solution systems revealed a three-step reaction mechanism for CuInS2 deposition and considerable adsorption of C8H5O4?�� and Cu(C8H5O4)+ to the cathode surface. This deposition shows that the synergetic effects of complexation and adsorption originated from the additive on the Cu2+ electro-reduction, thus promoting the co-deposition of copper, indium and sulfur in the form of single-phase CuInS2. Copper indium disulfide,One-step electrodeposition,Reaction mechanism,\{C8H5KO4\} additive

### Synthesis of CuS thin films by microwave assisted chemical bath deposition

Title Synthesis of CuS thin films by microwave assisted chemical bath deposition
Author: Xin, Mudi; Li, KunWei & Wang, Hao
Applied Surface Science, December 2009
2009
More details:

### Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

Title Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power
Author: Woodyard, James R. & Landis, Geoffrey A.
Solar Cells, 1991
1991
://WOS:A1991GE16600002>://WOS:A1991GE16600002
ISBN0379-6787

### Raman investigations of Cu ( In , Ga ) Se 2 thin fi lms with various copper contents

Title Raman investigations of Cu ( In , Ga ) Se 2 thin fi lms with various copper contents
Author: Witte, Wolfram; Kniese, Robert & Powalla, Michael
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2008
2008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.07.011
More details:

### CIGS thin- fi lm solar cells on steel substrates

Title CIGS thin- fi lm solar cells on steel substrates
Author: Wuerz, R; Eicke, A; Frankenfeld, M; Kessler, F; Powalla, M; Rogin, P & Yazdani-assl, O
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.016
More details:

### Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on AIT-Textured Glass Superstrates

Title Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on AIT-Textured Glass Superstrates
Author: Widenborg, Per I. & Aberle, Armin G.
2007
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aoe/2007/024584/abs/
More details:

### Chapter 2 - \CONCEPTUAL\ \MODELS\ \IN\ \GEOLOGY\

Title Chapter 2 - \CONCEPTUAL\ \MODELS\ \IN\ \GEOLOGY\
Author: WOLF, KARL H
, Elsevier 1976
1976
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978044441401450006X
More details:
ISBN978-0-444-41401-4

### The geochemistry of the volatile trace elements As, Cd, Ga, In and Sn in the Earth???s mantle: New evidence from in situ analyses of mantle xenoliths

Title The geochemistry of the volatile trace elements As, Cd, Ga, In and Sn in the Earth?��s mantle: New evidence from in situ analyses of mantle xenoliths
Author: Witt-Eickschen, G; Palme, H; O?��Neill, H.St.C. & Allen, C M
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016703708007679
More details: The abundances of 30 trace elements, including the volatile chalcophile/siderophile elements As, Cd, Ga, In and Sn were determined by laser ablation ICP-MS in minerals of 19 anhydrous and 5 hydrous spinel peridotite xenoliths from three continents. The majority of samples were fertile lherzolites with more than 5\% clinopyroxene; several samples have major element compositions close to estimates of the primitive mantle. All samples have been previously analysed for bulk-rock major, minor and lithophile trace elements. They cover a wide range of equilibration temperatures from about 850 to 1250\&\#xa0;??C and a pressure range from 0.8 to 3.0\&\#xa0;GPa. A comparison of results from bulk-rock analyses with concentrations obtained from combining silicate and oxide mineral data with modal mineralogy, gave excellent agreement, with the exception of As. Arsenic is the only element analysed that has high concentrations in sulphides. For all other elements sulphides can be neglected as host phases in these mantle rocks. The major host phase for Cd, In and Sn is clinopyroxene and if present, amphibole. Cadmium and In appear to behave moderately incompatibly during mantle melting similar to Yb. The data yield new and more reliable mantle abundances for Cd (35\&\#xa0;??\&\#xa0;7\&\#xa0;ppb), In (18\&\#xa0;??\&\#xa0;3\&\#xa0;ppb) and Sn (91\&\#xa0;??\&\#xa0;28\&\#xa0;ppb). The In value is similar to the Mg and CI-normalized Zn abundance of the mantle, although In is cosmochemically more volatile than Zn. The high In content suggests a high content of volatile elements in general in proto-Earth material. The lower relative abundances of volatile chalcophile elements such as Cd, S, Se and Te might be explained by sulphide segregation during core formation. The very low relative abundances of volatile and highly incompatible lithophile elements such as Br, Cl and I, and also C, N and rare gases, imply loss during Earth accretion, arguably by collisional erosion from differentiated planetesimals and protoplanets.

### Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces???A review

Title Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces?��A review
Author: Welz, Bernhard; Lepri, F\'{a}bio G; Araujo, Rennan G O; Ferreira, S\'{e}rgio L C; Huang, Mao-Dong; Okruss, Michael & Becker-Ross, Helmut
Analytica Chimica Acta, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000326700900823X
More details: The literature about the investigation of molecular spectra of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens in flames and furnaces, and the use of these spectra for the determination of these non-metals has been reviewed. Most of the investigations were carried out using conventional atomic absorption spectrometers, and there were in essence two different approaches. In the first one, dual-channel spectrometers with a hydrogen or deuterium lamp were used, applying the two-line method for background correction; in the second one, a line source was used that emitted an atomic line, which overlapped with the molecular spectrum. The first approach had the advantage that any spectral interval could be accessed, but it was susceptible to spectral interference; the second one had the advantage that the conventional background correction systems could be used to minimize spectral interferences, but had the problem that an atomic line had to be found, which was overlapping sufficiently well with the maximum of the molecular absorption spectrum. More recently a variety of molecular absorption spectra were investigated using a low-resolution polychromator with a \{CCD\} array detector, but no attempt was made to use this approach for quantitative determination of non-metals. The recent introduction and commercial availability of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometers is offering completely new possibilities for molecular absorption spectrometry and its use for the determination of non-metals. The use of a high-intensity continuum source together with a high-resolution spectrometer and a \{CCD\} array detector makes possible selecting the optimum wavelength for the determination and to exclude most spectral interferences. Halogens,Molecular absorption spectrometry,Non-metals determination,Phosphorus,Sulfur

### A pressure-induced nonlayered structure of indium monoselenide

Title A pressure-induced nonlayered structure of indium monoselenide
Author: Watanabe, Yousuke; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Noritaka & Nishina, Yuichiro
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022459682902237
More details: An X-ray diffraction study was made on a new polymorphic phase of InSe obtained by heating a layered crystal of the 3R($\gamma$) polytype under pressures of 40 and 50 kbar and by quenching to ambient conditions. An analysis of the diffraction intensity data collected on precession and Debye photographs gave a monoclinic structure (space group C12h) with four molecules in a unit cell. Upon transformation, new, short interatomic distances characteristic of covalent bonding are formed between indium and selenium atoms that were originally located in the adjacent layers. The structure is regarded as a modified version of the nonlayered InS-type structure. In the real structure of the high-pressure phase, however, there is a small amount of disorder in the orientation of the In?�?In bonds. Discussion is given on the reconstructive, layer-nonlayer transformation of InSe.

### Dye-Sensitized TiO 2 Nanotube Solar Cells with Markedly Enhanced Performance via Rational Surface Engineering

Title Dye-Sensitized TiO 2 Nanotube Solar Cells with Markedly Enhanced Performance via Rational Surface Engineering
Author: Wang, Jun & Lin, Zhiqun
Chemistry of Materials, January 2010
2010
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cm903164k
More details:

### Quantum oscillations in the ultrasonic attenuation in chromium

Title Quantum oscillations in the ultrasonic attenuation in chromium
Author: Wallace, W D; Tepley, N; Bohm, H V & Shapira, Y
Physics Letters, 1965
1965
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031916365904713
More details:

### Chemical transport of restricted solid solutions of In2O3 and SnO2: experiments and thermodynamic process analysis

Title Chemical transport of restricted solid solutions of In2O3 and SnO2: experiments and thermodynamic process analysis
Author: Werner, J; Behr, G; Bieger, W & Krabbes, G
Journal of Crystal Growth, 1996
1996
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022024896001959
More details: The preparation of mutual dissoluted In2O3SnO2 single crystals by the chemical transport method has been investigated. The transport reactions were performed using either iodine and sulphur simultaneously or chlorine as transporting agents and a mixture of pure oxides (4N) as source material. The highest concentration values of dissolved oxide were obtained after a sequential transport starting from a two phase region from 1250 to 1200 K. In this case, the maximum solubilities have been determined, indium oxide crystals with 8.2 mol\% tin oxide and tin oxide crystals with 2.4 mol\% indium oxide were grown. The experiments were explained with thermodynamical process calculations introducing the description of the solid phases as regular solid solutions consisting of nonstoichiometric binary oxides.

### Asynchronous-pulse ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition of CuxS (x=1, 2) thin films

Title Asynchronous-pulse ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition of CuxS (x 2) thin films
Author: Wang, Sheng-Yue; Wang, Wei & Lu, Zu-Hong
Materials Science and Engineering: B, October 2003
2003
More details: copper sulfide,deposition process,pyrolysis,thin films

### Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4

Title Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4
Author: Wang, Hongxia
International Journal of Photoenergy, 2011
2011
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2011/801292/
More details: The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in thosematerials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbersmade fromearth abundant, environment benignmaterials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and has attracted considerable interest recently. Significant progress in this relatively new research area has been achieved in the last three years. Over 130 papers on CZTS have been published since 2007, and the majority of them are on the preparation of CZTS thin films by different methods. This paper, will review the wide range of techniques that have been used to deposit CZTS semiconductor thin films. The performance of the thin film solar cells using the CZTSmaterial will also be discussed.
ISBN1110-662X$\backslash$n1687-529X

### T; Abou-Ras

Title T; Abou-Ras
Author: "Strohm, A; Eisenmann, L; Gebhardt, R K; Harding, A; Schl\"{o}tzer
D & Schock, Ga)Se2-based solar cells. ",","Alternative buffer layers \{EMRS\} 2004 Conference France In2S3
France
Ga)Se2-absorber thin film solar cells. The coevaporation of In and S and the compound-evaporation of In2S3-powder are compared. The production of highly efficient solar cells is only possible under well-defined indium-sulphide growth conditions resulting in high structural order at the buffer/absorber interface and in good process homogeneity and reproducibility. In the present work
More details: InxSyPhotovoltaicsPhysical vapour deposition","," 7,","Su2004","SuYuh-Fan; ChouTse-Chuan; Ling

Interface

### Thin Film Mechanics

Title Thin Film Mechanics
Author: Vlassak, Joost
Harvard University, 2004
2004
http://mrsec.harvard.edu/education/ap298r2004/Vlassak AP298presentation.pdf
More details: 1. Origin of residual stresses in thin films Epitaxial stresses Thermal stresses Intrinsic or growth stresses - surface stress effects - crystallite coalescence - grain growth - vacancy annihilation - effect of impurities - effect of phase transformations - stresses in sputtered films 2. Deformation processes in thin films Grain boundary diffusion controlled creep Dislocation mechanisms

### Thin Film Processes

Title Thin Film Processes
Author: Vossen, J. L.
Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 1980
1980
http://jes.ecsdl.org/cgi/doi/10.1149/1.2130540
More details: This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application
ISBN0127282513

### On the interpretation of solid-state coulometry, used in studies of thin films of copper sulphide

Title On the interpretation of solid-state coulometry, used in studies of thin films of copper sulphide
Author: Vervaet, A; Burgelman, M & Clemminck, I
Journal of materials science letters, 1989
1989
More details:

### Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer

Title Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer
Author: Spiering, S.; Paetel, S.; Kessler, F.; Igalson, M. & Abdel Maksoud, H.
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. November 2014
2014
More details: Buffer layer,Copper indium gallium selenide,Electronic transport,Indium sulphide,Thermal evaporation,copper indium gallium selenide

### An electroanalytical study of chemiplated thin films of copper sulphide

Title An electroanalytical study of chemiplated thin films of copper sulphide
Author: Stiddard, MHB
Journal of materials science, 1987
1987
More details:

### Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\

Title Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\
Author: Spiering, S; Eicke, A; Hariskos, D; Powalla, M; Naghavi, N & Lincot, D
Thin Solid Films, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609003014779
More details: The development of Cd-free buffer layers by vacuum process for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar modules becomes even more interesting regarding environmental aspects and the implementation in industrial production. This work presents the latest results of \{CIGS\} modules with indium sulfide (In2S3) as buffer layer deposited by the atomic layer chemical vapour deposition technique. A module efficiency close to 13\% was realised on the area of 30?�30 cm2 ($\eta$.9\%, VOC'.8 V, FFr.6\%, ISC457 A, aperture area: 714 cm2 and 42 cells). Diffusion processes at the buffer layer interfaces, dependent on deposition temperature and post annealing, have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and sputtered neutral mass spectrometry analysis. Diffusion of Cu and Na into the buffer layer and intermixing of S and Se at the In2S3/CIGS interface have been detected. Atomic layer deposition,Buffer layer,Cd-free,Cu(In,Ga)Se2,In2S3

Proceedings of Symposium D on Thin Film and Nano-Structured Materials for Photovoltaics, of the E-MRS 2003 Spring Conference

### L; Hariskos

Title L; Hariskos
Author: "Spiering, S; B\"{u}rkert
D; Powalla, C & Heuken S.; B\"{u}rkert, L.; Hariskos, D.; Powalla, M.; Dimmler, B.; Giesen, C. & Heuken, M."
S.; B\"{u}rkert, L.; Hariskos, D.; Powalla, M.; Dimmler, B.; Giesen, C. & Heuken, M."
517
More details:

### Improved electrical properties of tin-oxide fi lms by using ultralow-pressure sputtering process

Title Improved electrical properties of tin-oxide fi lms by using ultralow-pressure sputtering process
Author: Soo, Myung; Seop, Bong; Lee, Joohei; Heo, Jaeyeong; Jin, Sang & Yoon, Kapsoo
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.05.051
More details:

### Crystal field effects on the magnetic behavior of Yb2V2O7 and Tm2V2O7

Title Crystal field effects on the magnetic behavior of Yb2V2O7 and Tm2V2O7
Author: Soderholm, Lynne; Stager, C V & Greedan, J E
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022459682902262
More details: The bulk magnetic behaviors of the pyrochlores Yb2V2O7 and Tm2V2O7 were investigated. Calculated susceptibilities were adjusted to obtain the best fit to experimental data. A cubic crystal field Hamiltonian was used with B??4 ��0.633 and B??6 .000705 K for Yb3+ and B??4 .0297 and B??6 .000339 K for Tm3+. The calculated susceptibility for Yb3+ was found to be insensitive to the addition of an axial B??2 parameter to the cubic Hamiltonian.

### Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\

Title Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\
Author: Spiering, S; Eicke, A; Hariskos, D; Powalla, M; Naghavi, N & Lincot, D
Thin Solid Films, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609003014779
More details: The development of Cd-free buffer layers by vacuum process for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar modules becomes even more interesting regarding environmental aspects and the implementation in industrial production. This work presents the latest results of \{CIGS\} modules with indium sulfide (In2S3) as buffer layer deposited by the atomic layer chemical vapour deposition technique. A module efficiency close to 13\% was realised on the area of 30?�30 cm2 ($\eta$.9\%, VOC'.8 V, FFr.6\%, ISC457 A, aperture area: 714 cm2 and 42 cells). Diffusion processes at the buffer layer interfaces, dependent on deposition temperature and post annealing, have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and sputtered neutral mass spectrometry analysis. Diffusion of Cu and Na into the buffer layer and intermixing of S and Se at the In2S3/CIGS interface have been detected. Atomic layer deposition,Buffer layer,Cd-free,Cu(In,Ga)Se2,In2S3

Proceedings of Symposium D on Thin Film and Nano-Structured Materials for Photovoltaics, of the E-MRS 2003 Spring Conference

### Optical properties of SnTexSe 1 - x thin films

Title Optical properties of SnTexSe 1 - x thin films
Author: Soliman, L I; Farag, B S; Zayed, H A & Shehata, F M
, 2002
2002
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/24967
More details:

### The spin-flip Raman laser

Title The spin-flip Raman laser
Author: Smith, S D; Dennis, R B & Harrison, R G
Progress in Quantum Electronics, 1977
1977
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0079672779900053
More details:

### Passivation

Title Passivation
Author: Schmutz, Patrik
, ETH 2013
2013
http://www.surface.mat.ethz.ch/education/courses/surfaces\_interfaces\_and\_their\_applications\_II
More details: Although thermodynamically non-noble, many metals and their alloys are in practice resistant to corrosion with equilibrium potentials much higher than their reversible potentials (see the practical potential series, figure 11.17 of Surface, Interfaces, and their Applications I). This behavior is due to a spontaneous formation of a thin protecting oxide layer, the passive layer, as a product of the anodic metal dissolution.CMOS (passivation)

### Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Monosulfide Thin Films

Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Monosulfide Thin Films
Author: Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Heo, Jaeyeong; Noh, Wontae; Hock, Adam S. & Gordon, Roy G.
2011
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/aenm.201100330
More details: Thin film solar cells made from earth-abundant, non-toxic materials are needed to replace the current technology that uses Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 and CdTe, which contain scarce and toxic elements. One promising candidate absorber material is tin monosulfide (SnS). In this report, pure, stoichiometric, singlephase SnS films were obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis( N, N?�?- diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N- i Pr) 2) 2] and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 ??C). The direct optical band gap of SnS is around 1.3 eV and strong optical absorption ($\alpha$\>10 4cm - 1 ) is observed throughout the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The films are p-type semiconductors with carrier concentration on the order of 10 16cm -3 and hole mobility 0.82-15.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in the plane of the films. The electrical properties are anisotropic, with three times higher mobility in the direction through the film, compared to the in-plane direction. ?? 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
ISBN1614-6840

### H.; Zur

Title H.; Zur
Author: "Schoenes, J.; Rode, M.; Schr\"{o}ter
D. & Borgschulte, K","Prospects of high intensity laser driven radiation sources",",,3,","2--4",2009,",",","EIGHTH DAE-BRNS NATIONAL LASER SYMPOSIUM- NLS-08 Invited Talk",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","," 5,","SCHROEDER1973107","SCHROEDER S; Bussmann T; Debus Stephan & Ellmer
T; Debus
A; Kraft
More details: investigated by in situ \EDXRD\","Journal of Crystal Growth",384,0,","114--121",2013,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022024813005927",",",",",",",",",",",",","Abstract Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) has been used to observe in situ the formation of Cu(InGa)S2 (CIGS) films during reactive magnetron co-sputtering. By simultaneous sputtering from a CuGa and an In target in an Ar:H2S atmosphere the \{CIGS\} filmswhich can be used as absorber layers for thin film solar cellscan be grown in a single step without any post-treatments. By carefully analyzing the in situ experimentsseveral effects have been found which should be considered during designing the recipe for an absorber deposition process in order to achieve \{CIGS\} films with the desired stoichiometry and good crystallinity. For instance substrate temperatures below 380\&\#xa0;??C should be used in order to achieve a sufficient condensation of In atoms which is needed to avoid the formation of intermetallic Cu?��Ga phases. Since

Ga)S2 films

### Annealing of indium sulfide thin films prepared at low temperature by modulated flux deposition

Title Annealing of indium sulfide thin films prepared at low temperature by modulated flux deposition
Author: Sanz, C; Guill\'{e}n, C & Herrero, J
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2013
2013
http://stacks.iop.org/0268-1242/28/ia5004?keyossref.c933b00bb22cdd3e1bc65b9bbd1a0a69
More details:

### Preparation and characterization of electron beam evaporated WO3 thin films

Title Preparation and characterization of electron beam evaporated WO3 thin films
Author: Sivakumar, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Jayachandran, M. & Sanjeeviraja, C.
Optical Materials, February 2007
2007
More details: electron beam evaporation,energy band gap,optical properties,smart windows,structural properties,textured nature,wo 3 films

### Semiconducting tin oxide nanowires and thin fi lms for Chemical Warfare Agents detection

Title Semiconducting tin oxide nanowires and thin fi lms for Chemical Warfare Agents detection
Author: Sberveglieri, G; Baratto, C; Comini, E; Faglia, G; Ferroni, M; Pardo, M; Ponzoni, A & Vomiero, A
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.04.004
More details:

### Phase and morphology dependence on the annealing temperature of tin sul fi des and oxides prepared by thermal decomposition of organotin precursors

Title Phase and morphology dependence on the annealing temperature of tin sul fi des and oxides prepared by thermal decomposition of organotin precursors
Author: Siqueira, Guilherme Oliveira; Porto, Arilza De Oliveira; Lima, Geraldo Magela De & Matencio, Tulio
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Elsevier B.V 2012
2012
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2012.05.024
More details:

### Photoluminescence in manganese indium sulphide thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

Title Photoluminescence in manganese indium sulphide thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis
Author: Sharma, R K; Lakshmikumar, S T; Singh, Gurmeet & Rastogi, A C
Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2005
2005
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254058405000313
More details: Photoluminescence measurements on manganese indium sulphide thin films were carried out and the temperature dependence of the Pl emission band was studied. A Gaussian shaped Pl band centered at 535\&\#xa0;nm was observed at 10\&\#xa0;K. A study on the variation of InCl3 concentration in spray solution over the Pl energy band position and shape suggests that varying InCl3 concentration in the solution or by changing the In3+ composition in the film during growth does not affect Pl maxima position on energy axis whereas a reduction in the Pl peak intensity was noticed with decreasing InCl3 solution concentration. Based on the luminescence data donor level height in the manganese indium sulphide energy gap was estimated and found to be around 20\&\#xa0;meV; that again on reduction in InCl3 concentration in solution found to decreases marginally. MnIn2S4,Photoluminescence,Spray deposition,Thin film

### Electrical conductivity and minority carrier diffusion in thermally oxidized PbTe thin films

Title Electrical conductivity and minority carrier diffusion in thermally oxidized PbTe thin films
Author: Shufer, E; Dashevsky, Z; Kasiyan, V; Flitsiyan, E; Chernyak, L & Gartsman, K
Physica B: Condensed Matter, Elsevier February 2010
2010
More details: EBIC effect,Lead telluride film,Thermal oxidation,Transport properties

### The history, design, fabrication and performance of CdS thin film solar cells

Title The history, design, fabrication and performance of CdS thin film solar cells
Author: Shirland, Fred a.
1966
More details:

### The geochemistry of gallium, indium, thallium???a review

Title The geochemistry of gallium, indium, thallium?��a review
Author: Shaw, Denis M
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 1957
1957
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0079194657900095
More details:

### Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells

Title Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells
Author: Shockley, William & Queisser, Hans J
Journal of Applied Physics, 1961
1961
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/32/3/10.1063/1.1736034
More details:

### Growth phases in the formation of semiconducting manganese indium sulphide thin film and their effect on the optical absorption

Title Growth phases in the formation of semiconducting manganese indium sulphide thin film and their effect on the optical absorption
Author: Sharma, R K; Rastogi, A C; Kohli, Sandeep; Kang, Tae Won & Singh, Gurmeet
Physica B: Condensed Matter, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921452604006751
More details: Manganese indium sulphide (MnInxS4) thin films within x range 2.0???x???1.0 were deposited by a simple chemical spray pyrolysis using an aqueous solution of MnCl2, InCl3 and (NH2)2CS in 1:2:4 molar ratio. X-ray diffraction on these films revealed the formation of cubic MnIn2S4 along with the secondary phases MnS2, In2S3, and InS. It has been observed that the concentration of InCl3 in solution affects the manganese indium sulphide film properties causing [Mn] deficiency on its reduction in the spray solution. As evidenced by X-ray diffraction studies InCl3, concentration in the spray solution affects the occurrence of free secondary phases of manganese sulphide and indium sulphide, leading to a wide variation in optical properties of the films. A variation in optical energy gap from 3.1 to 1.9\&\#xa0;eV for as-deposited MnInxS4 films has been observed within 2.0???x???1.0 spray solution composition. A further reduction in the optical band gap up to 0.80\&\#xa0;eV has been observed at post-deposition annealing under \{N2\} and \{H2S\} ambient atmosphere. MnIn2S4,Spray deposition,Ternary semiconductor

### Growth , structural and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation method

Title Growth , structural and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation method
Author: Shah, N M; Panchal, C J; Kheraj, V A; Ray, J R & Desai, M S
Solar Energy, Elsevier Ltd 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2008.11.006
More details: atomic force microscopy,cuinse 2 thin film,energy dispersive x-ray analysis,thermal evaporation,transmission meas-,x-ray diffraction
ISBN9825094761

### Thin-film silicon solar cells: A review and selected trends

Title Thin-film silicon solar cells: A review and selected trends
Author: Shah, A
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 1995
1995
More details: A case is developed for considering silicon as the prime medium-term candidate for semiconductor photovoltaic cells; the argumentation is based on other materials not being abundantly available, highly toxic and or very expensive. Crystalline silicon solar cells have excellent efficiencies, however, according to data presented by the authors on material fluxes and energy consumpiton there are serious bottlenecks for this technique with respect to future large-scale applications both from an economical as well as from an ecological point of view. Thus, the authors consider thin-film silicon solar cells as the main option for large-scale energy applications in the foreseeable future. Thin-film silicon solar cells are either polycrystalline or amorphous. The first category is gaining in interest at this moment, but major technological problems remain unresolved, e.g., growth of a highly-quality crystalline structure on foreing (low-cost) substrates, reduction of deposition temperature and increase of deposition rate. Teh second category has so far yielded only limited stable efficienies, although progress has been recently achieved in improving the stability of solar cells using stacked or tandem/triple structures. Novel approaches to further improve the stable efficiencies, such as using low-level doping profiles within the i-layer of the p-i-n solar cell, are listed. Entirely microcrystalline p-i-n solar cells that are stable and can be deposited at low temperatures (220 celsius degrees) with rates up to 1 angstrom/s by the VHF plasma deposition technique are described as further, recent contribution to thin-film silicon photovoltaic technology.

### Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films

Title Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films
Author: Sharma, M K; Gayen, R N; Pal, A K; Kanjilal, D & Chatterjee, Ratnamala
Solid State Communications, Elsevier Ltd 2011
2011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2011.04.028
More details:

### Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films

Title Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films
Author: Sharma, M K; Gayen, R N; Pal, A K; Kanjilal, D & Chatterjee, Ratnamala
Solid State Communications, Elsevier Ltd 2011
2011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2011.04.028
More details:

### Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology

Title Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology
Author: Shah, \{AV\}; Schade, H; Vanecek, M & Meier, J
Progress in \ldots, 2004
2004
http://159.226.64.60/fckeditor/UserFiles/File/tyndc/reference/19938777866047.pdf$\backslash$npapers2://publication/uuid/759B7C7C-296B-4CE2-A937-775C2C98E4BA$\backslash$npapers2://publication/doi/10.1002/pip.533)
More details: This paper describes the use, within p?��i?��n- and n?��i?��p-type cells, of hydro- genated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ( c-Si:H) thin films (layers), both deposited at low temperatures (200 C) by plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (PECVD),

### Structural , electrical , and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin fi lm prepared by thermal evaporation method

Title Structural , electrical , and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin fi lm prepared by thermal evaporation method
Author: Shah, N M; Ray, J R; Patel, K J; Kheraj, V A; Desai, M S; Panchal, C J & Rehani, Bharti
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.133
More details: copper indium diselenide thin,fi lm
ISBN9825094761

### FTIR Reflection Techniques

Title FTIR Reflection Techniques
, 2012
2012
http://www.vscht.cz/anl/vibspec/FTIR Reflection Techniques.pdf$\backslash$npapers2://publication/uuid/DDE2E194-3D0F-4DD7-864A-9F277CECBB02
More details:

### Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition

Title Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition
Author: Serin, N; Serin, T; Horzum, ?? & Celik, Y
Semiconductor science and \ldots, 2005
2005
http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/20/5/012
More details: annealing,deposition,optical property,thin film

### 3.07 - Gallium, Indium, and Thallium, Excluding Transition Metal Derivatives

Title 3.07 - Gallium, Indium, and Thallium, Excluding Transition Metal Derivatives
Author: Schulz, S
, Elsevier 2007
2007
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080450474000480
More details: This chapter deals with the synthesis of organometallic compounds of the group 13 elements Ga, In, and Tl, which contain at least one metal?��carbon or metal?��hydrogen bond. An overview about general synthetic pathways is given and their structures and reactivity are discussed. The current chapter not only reviews group 13 organometallics in the typical oxidation state \{III\} but also emphasizes on the synthesis and reactivity of low-valent complexes, which were almost unknown 10 years ago. In addition, heteroatomic compounds of groups 15 and 16 are discussed. Cluster,Double bonding,Heterocycles,Hexeles,Low-valent complexes,Metalloid,Monomers,Penteles
ISBN978-0-08-045047-6

### Pyrochlore-related phases in the lead oxide-tantalum oxide system

Title Pyrochlore-related phases in the lead oxide-tantalum oxide system
Author: Scott, H G
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022459682902225
More details: Pyrochlore-related phases in the PbO?�?Ta2O5 system were reinvestigated. Three such phases are described: cubic Pb1.5Ta2O6.5 with a narrow range of composition, rhombohedral Pb22Ta18O67, and orthorhombic Pb14Ta10O39. A new pyrochlore-related structure is proposed for the orthorhombic phase. There is also a range of rhombohedral solid solution, which may be metastable only. The existence of the previously reported Pb2Ta2O7 is not confirmed.

### Synthesis of metal sulfide materials with controlled architecture

Title Synthesis of metal sulfide materials with controlled architecture
Author: Scott, Robert W J; MacLachlan, Mark J & Ozin, Geoffrey A
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, 1999
1999
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359028699000145
More details: Recent advances in the synthesis of metal sulfides with controlled architecture, exemplified by microporous and mesostructured materials, intercalates, nanowires, and nanotubes are described. These illustrate a paradigm shift from traditional solid-state methods to rational, directed assembly of materials with hierarchical design.

### Growth of polycrystalline CuInSe2 thin films by effusion evaporation

Title Growth of polycrystalline CuInSe2 thin films by effusion evaporation
Author: Search, Home; Journals, Collections; Contact, About; Iopscience, My & Address, I P
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 1993
1993
http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/8/5/007
More details:

### Thin film photovoltaics

Title Thin film photovoltaics
Author: Schock, H.W.
Applied Surface Science, February 1996
1996
More details: The different technologies for thin film photovoltaics are compared. Three main candidates namely a-Si, CdTe and CuInSe2 exhibit specific material properties which require different deposition processes and determine the design of photovoltaic devices. The properties of these material are discussed in detail in view of their advantages, drawbacks and potential for future developments. The present state of the art of thin film solar cell manufacturing is reviewed and the different deposition processes are analyzed in view of material quality and scalability. Specific differences of the semiconductors and their potential for high efficiency solar cells are evaluated. The formation and analysis of these junctions is described and ways for new developments and material combinations are shown. Recent results on the manufacturing issues and performance of thin film modules are reported.
ISBN0169-4332

### Volatile element chemistry during metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material and some of its implications for the composition of asteroids

Title Volatile element chemistry during metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material and some of its implications for the composition of asteroids
Author: Schaefer, Laura & Jr., Bruce Fegley
Icarus, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103509003820
More details: We used chemical equilibrium calculations to model thermal metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material as a function of temperature, pressure, and trace element abundance and use our results to discuss volatile mobilization during thermal metamorphism of ordinary chondrite parent bodies. We compiled trace element abundances in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites for the elements Ag, As, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Cu, Ga, Ge, I, In, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, and Zn, and identified abundance trends as a function of petrographic type within each class. We calculated volatility sequences for the trace elements in ordinary chondritic material, which differ significantly from the solar nebula volatility sequence. Our results are consistent with open-system thermal metamorphism. Abundance patterns of Ag and Zn remain difficult to explain. Asteroids

### Thermoelectrically Pumped Light-Emitting Diodes Operating above Unity Efficiency

Title Thermoelectrically Pumped Light-Emitting Diodes Operating above Unity Efficiency
Author: Santhanam, Parthiban; Gray, Dodd Joseph & Ram, Rajeev J
Physical Review Letters, February 2012
2012
More details:

### Formation and properties of AgInSe2 thin films by co-evaporation

Title Formation and properties of AgInSe2 thin films by co-evaporation
Author: Santhosh Kumar, M.C C.; Pradeep, B. & Kumar, M.C. Santhosh
Vacuum, January 2004
2004
More details: The electrical and optical properties of silver indium selenide thin films prepared by co-evaporation have been studied. X-ray diffraction indicates that the as prepared films were polycrystalline in nature. The lattice parameters were calculated to be a .6137 and b .1816 nm. Composition was determined from energy dispersive analysis of X-ray. Silver indium selenide thin films were also prepared by bulk evaporation of powdered sample for comparative study. They have an optical band gap (Eg) of 1.25 eV and it is a direct allowed transition. Refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were calculated from absorption and reflection spectra. Steady-state photoconductivity was measured from 300 to 400 K. Carrier lifetime was calculated from transient photoconductivity measurements at room temperature at different intensities of illumination. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Co-evaporation,Electrical properties,Optical properties,Photoconductivity,Silver indium selenide,Thin film,co-evaporation,electrical properties,optical properties,photoconductivity,silver indium selenide,thin film

### Structural, optical, electrical, and low temperature thermoelectric studies on the ordered vacancy compound AgGa3Se5

Title Structural, optical, electrical, and low temperature thermoelectric studies on the ordered vacancy compound AgGa3Se5
Author: Rajani, J; Geethu, R; Shripathi, T; Okram, G S; Ganesan, V; Pradeep, B; Urmila, K S & Philip, R R
physica status solidi (b), June 2012
2012
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/pssb.201147581
More details: agga 3 se 5,optical properties,ordered vacancy compounds,thermoelectric effect,thin films

### Transparent Indium Tin Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive Thermal Evaporation in the UC Berkely Microlab

Title Transparent Indium Tin Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive Thermal Evaporation in the UC Berkely Microlab
Author: Queen, DR & Morford, J
UC Berkeley Microfabrication Laboratory, 2009
2009
More details: Transparent, conducting thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been prepared by reactive thermal evaporation. Films grown from an InSn (10 wt. \%) source at 175??C in 0.32 mTorr of O2 gas have resistivity of 2.4?�10-4 ?� cm and transparency greater than 95\% over the visible spectrum. Film

### The Effect of Ga Doping on the Physical Properties of Lead Sulphide Thin Films

Title The Effect of Ga Doping on the Physical Properties of Lead Sulphide Thin Films
Author: Radhakrishnan, Reshmi; Rahman, Hiba; Dhanya, S.; Geethu, R.; Karim, Nafsia; Faseela, K.; Sreenivasan, P. V.; Pradeep, B.; Philip, Rachel Reena; Predeep, P.; Thakur, Mrinal & Varma, M. K. Ravi
, 2011
2011
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.3643670
More details:

### Anisotropic electrical and dispersive optical parameters in InS layered crystals

Title Anisotropic electrical and dispersive optical parameters in InS layered crystals
Author: Qasrawi, A F & Gasanly, N M
Solid State Communications, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038109809007169
More details: The anisotropy effect on the current transport mechanism and on the dispersive optical parameters of indium monosulfide crystals has been studied by means of electrical conductivity and polarized reflectance measurements along the a -axis and the b -axis, respectively. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity analysis in the range 10?��350 K for the a -axis and in the range 30?��350 K for the b -axis revealed the domination of the thermionic emission of charge carriers and the domination of variable range hopping above and below 100 K, respectively. At high temperatures ( T \> 100 K ) the conductivity anisotropy, s , decreased sharply with decreasing temperature following the law s ?�? exp ( ?�� E s / k T ) . The anisotropy activation energy, E s , was found to be 330 and 17 meV above and below 220 K, respectively. Below 100 K, the conductivity anisotropy is invariant with temperature. In that region, the calculated hopping parameters are altered significantly by the conductivity anisotropy. The optical reflectivity analysis in the wavelength range 250?��650 nm revealed a clear anisotropy effect on the dispersive optical parameters. In particular, the static refractive index, static dielectric constant, lattice dielectric constant, dispersion energy and oscillator energy exhibited values of 2.89, 8.39, 19.7, 30.02 eV and 4.06 eV, and values of 2.76, 7.64, 25.9, 22.26 eV and 3.35 eV for light polarized along the a -axis and the b -axis, respectively. A. Semiconductors,B. Crystal growth,D. Electronic transport,D. Optical properties

### Thin films of ZnTe electrodeposited on stainless steel

Title Thin films of ZnTe electrodeposited on stainless steel
Author: a.E. Rakhshani & Pradeep, B.
Applied Physics A, December 2003
2003
More details:

### Physicochemical conditions of sedimentation of the Fish Clay from Stevns Klint, Denmark, and its detrital nature: Vanadium and other supportive evidence

Title Physicochemical conditions of sedimentation of the Fish Clay from Stevns Klint, Denmark, and its detrital nature: Vanadium and other supportive evidence
Author: Premovi\'{c}, Pavle I; Pavlovi\'{c}, Neboj\v{s}a Z; Pavlovi\'{c}, Mirjana S & Nikoli\'{c}, Nikola D
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1993
1993
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001670379390004G
More details: Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary samples of the Fish Clay in Denmark from three sites (Stevns Klint, Nye Kl\o v and Dania) have been analyzed mineralogically and chemically. All samples contain major amounts of biogenic calcite and smectite. In some samples, minor amounts of authigenic pyrite and siderite (Stevns Klint), and lepidocrocite (Dania) are also present. To obtain an indication of the chemical nature of the V present in the Danish boundaries, the samples were analysed for V and vanadyl (VO2+) at various stages of selective leaching. The results obtained indicate that the bulk of V is associated with the smectite fractions (?��47\% of total V); all VO2+ resides in the smectite portions. From the chemistry of VO2+, pyrite and carbonates, it is deduced that the oxidation potential and pH of the interstitial seawater of the Stevns Klint boundary was approximately 0.0 to ?��0.2 V and 6 to 7, respectively, during the accumulation of the lower black basal part, but rose during the accumulation of the upper grey part. The geochemical data do support the hypothesis that the Danish boundary smectite represents weathered clay (along with some asteroid and local material) that was redeposited to the Danish boundary sites after the K/T event. Substantial proportions of the VO2+ contents of the Nye Kl\o v and Dania smectite were probably already contained in the detrital clay arriving at the site of boundary sedimentation, but at the Stevns Klint site they have been significantly augmented by uptake from the interfacial and interstitial seawaters through the humic substances involvement. Abundances and major mineralogical residences have been determined for trace metals: Cr, Ni, Co and Ga; and minor Fe. Much of these elements is located in the boundary smectite structure as the corresponding ionic forms (CrOH2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Ga3+ and Fe3+) and is strictly detrital in character, i.e., having been transported to the Danish boundary sites already contained in smectite. All these metals in the Danish boundary smectite are well above normal abundances in clays.

### 1.33 - Precursor Chemistry ??? Main Group Metal Oxides

Title 1.33 - Precursor Chemistry ?�� Main Group Metal Oxides
Author: Pugh, D; Bloor, L; Moniz, S & Carmalt, C J
, Elsevier 2013
2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080977744001340
More details: Abstract This chapter describes precursor complexes that have been utilized to deposit thin films of main-group metal oxides. An overview of the wide range of precursors that have been reported for the growth of these oxides, which includes metal alkoxides and $\beta$-diketonates, is presented including synthetic details. A number of techniques have been used to deposit the metal oxide films, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and sol?��gel, and the technique employed is described. The focus of the chapter is on the chemistry of precursors to the thin films, although mention has also been made of techniques (such as ALD), which tend to utilize simple, commercially available precursors in combination with a secondary oxygen source. The first section describes precursors for the deposition of aluminum oxide, gallium oxide, and indium oxide. Group 13 oxides have a fascinating range of chemistry and find application as components of high-temperature superconductors, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), and gas sensors. These applications tend to use doped-group 13 metal oxides, and precursors to these materials have been highlighted at the end of the section. The second section describes the range of precursors that have been used for the formation of group 14 oxide thin films. These materials find application in everyday life from silicon dioxide, or silica, which is widely used in electronics manufacturing, to tin dioxide that is commonly used for gas sensors as well as \{TCO\} applications. These oxides have been deposited using a variety of methods that can alter the final properties of the films. In most cases, commercially available precursors have been employed, for example, tin halides and organotin precursors for SnO2, with the addition of an oxygen source (usually H2O, H2O2, O2, and O3); however, there are a few reported examples of more sophisticated precursors which are described as well as a brief overview of doped-group 14 metal oxides. The last section gives an overview of the precursors developed for the deposition of group 15 and 16 metal oxides ?�� including antimony oxide, bismuth oxide, and tellurium oxide. Thin films of the binary group 15 and 16 oxides have limited applications in comparison to the corresponding group 13 and 14 oxides, for example, antimony oxide finds use in catalysis and gas sensor devices and bismuth oxide are of interest in high Tc superconductors and potentially for fuel cells. Aluminum oxide,Antimony oxide,Bismuth oxide,CVD,Ferroelectric,Gallium aluminum oxide,Gallium oxide,Gallium zinc oxide,Germanium oxide,Indium oxide,Indium tin oxide,Lead oxide,Molecular precursors,Single-source precursors,Tellurium oxide,Thallium oxide,Tin oxide,Transparent conducting oxide
ISBN978-0-08-096529-1

### Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B Positron annihilation and X-ray diffraction studies on tin oxide thin films

Title Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B Positron annihilation and X-ray diffraction studies on tin oxide thin films
Author: Prabakar, K; Abhaya, S; Krishnan, R; Kalavathi, S; Dash, S; Jayapandian, J & Amarendra, G
Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.02.058
More details:

### \CIGS\ J???V distortion in the absence of blue photons

Title \CIGS\ J?��V distortion in the absence of blue photons
Author: Pudov, A O; Sites, J R; Contreras, M A; Nakada, T & Schock, H.-W.
Thin Solid Films, 2005
2005
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609004016281
More details: Common buffer materials used with CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) absorbers produce conduction-band barriers that may significantly distort the current?��voltage (J?��V) curves, especially when short-wavelength photons are excluded from the illumination spectrum. Earlier work documented this effect for CuInSe2 (CIS) absorbers (band gap near 1.0 eV) with CdS buffers. Higher band-gap (?�?1.15 eV) \{CIGS\} absorbers show little or no distortion with CdS buffer layers. However, wider band gap (lower electron affinity) ZnS(O,OH) or InS(O,OH) buffers, prepared by chemical-bath deposition (CBD), clearly show the J?��V distortion. The distortions have a turn-on time constant the order of a minute and turn-off time constant the order of a day, and they correlate with major variations in apparent quantum efficiency (QE) measured with varying intensity and spectral content of bias light. The results are consistent with a conduction-band spike barrier that increases with buffer band gap and is larger when the electron concentration in the buffer is small. Blue photons,CuInGaSe2,CuInSe2

\{EMRS\} 2004 Proceedings of Symposium O on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, \{EMRS\} 2004 Conference, Strasbourg, France, May 24-28, 2004

### Highly efficient CIS solar cells and modules made by the co-evaporation process

Title Highly efficient CIS solar cells and modules made by the co-evaporation process
Author: Powalla, M; Voorwinden, G; Hariskos, D; Jackson, P & Kniese, R
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.10.126
More details:

### Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

Title Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe
Author: Powalla, Michael & Bonnet, Dieter
2007
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aoe/2007/097545/abs/
More details:

### Preparation and characterization of CuInS2 thin films from aqueous solutions by novel photochemical deposition technique

Title Preparation and characterization of CuInS2 thin films from aqueous solutions by novel photochemical deposition technique
Author: Podder, Jiban; Miyawaki, Tetsuya & Ichimura, Masaya
Journal of Crystal Growth, 2005
2005
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022024804015891
More details: CuInS2 (CIS) thin films were deposited on \{ITO\} glass substrate by a two-step process using a simple and low-cost photochemical deposition technique. In the first step InS thin films were deposited from aqueous solution of In2(SO4)3 and Na2S2O3 and in the second step CuxS films were deposited on the InS films from CuSO4 and Na2S2O3. The as-deposited films were annealed at 300\&\#xa0;??C for 30\&\#xa0;min. Annealed samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron micrograph and optical transmission study, etc. It was observed that ternary layers were formed by interdiffusion of Cu and In during the annealing and that composition of the annealed films was determined by the deposition time of the binary layers. By optimizing the condition, nearly stoichiometric \{CIS\} was obtained. A1.Raman scattering,A3.Photochemical deposition,A3.Thin film,B1.Copper indium disulphide

Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Crystal Growth and the 12th International Conference on Vapor Growth and Epitaxy

### Spray pyrolysis deposition of CuS thin films

Title Spray pyrolysis deposition of CuS thin films
Author: Na?�cu, C; Pop, Ileana; Ionescu, Violeta; Indrea, E & Bratu, I
Materials Letters, 1997
1997
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167577X97000153
More details: copper sulfide,spray pyrolysis,thin film

### Chemically deposited copper oxide thin films: structural, optical and electrical characteristics

Title Chemically deposited copper oxide thin films: structural, optical and electrical characteristics
Author: Nair, M.T.S; Guerrero, Laura; Arenas, Olga L & Nair, P.K
Applied Surface Science, August 1999
1999
More details: chemical deposition,copper oxide,thin film

### Technical developments in 2000: inorganic ??metallic??? finishes, processes, and equipment

Title Technical developments in 2000: inorganic ?ǣmetallic?�? finishes, processes, and equipment
Author: Murphy, Michael
Metal Finishing, 2001
2001
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026057601809831
More details:

### A study on dependence of the structural, optical and electrical properties of cadmium lead sulphide thin films on Cd/Pb ratio

Title A study on dependence of the structural, optical and electrical properties of cadmium lead sulphide thin films on Cd/Pb ratio
Author: Nair, Sinitha B.; Abraham, Anitha; B., Pradeep; T., Shripathi; V., Ganesan & Philip, Rachel Reena
, 2014
2014
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.4898289
More details:

### Polyethersulfone foils as stable transparent substrates for conductive copper sulfide thin film coatings

Title Polyethersulfone foils as stable transparent substrates for conductive copper sulfide thin film coatings
Author: Nair, P.K; Cardoso, J; Gomez Daza, O & Nair, M.T.S
Thin Solid Films, December 2001
2001
More details: electrical properties and measurements,optical coatings,semiconductors,sulphides

### Rolf; Schorr

Title Rolf; Schorr
Author: "Pistor, Paul; Caballero, Raquel; Hariskos, Dimitrios; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; W\"{a}chter
Susan & Klenk, Stability","," 7,","Pistor2009","Pistor stoichiometry evaporation behaviour and crystallinity. It was found to vary significantly for different suppliers. The influence of source material quality and stability on In2 S3 layer growth and properties were investigated by various optical Victor; Wa
evaporation behaviour and crystallinity. It was found to vary significantly for different suppliers. The influence of source material quality and stability on In2 S3 layer growth and properties were investigated by various optical
best cells reached a certified efficiency of 15.2\% with remarkably high fill factor (75.6\%) and open circuit voltage (677 mV). ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",","Alternative buffer
More details: Reiner","Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Quality and stability of compound indium sulphide as source material for buffer layers in Cu ( In Ga ) Se 2 solar cells",",93,,","148--152",2009,",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","," 7,","Pitzschke20021167","PitzschkeDragan; N\"{a}ther, Christian & Bensch, Wolfgang"(DEA-H)+7In11S21H2: a new layered open framework indium sulfide based on the interconnection of [In10S20]10?�� supertetrahedraSolid State Sciences
ISBN0927-0248
Susan & Klenk

### "Cu ( In , Ga ) Se thin- " lm solar cells with an e \$ciency of 18 \%",",67,,","331--335",2001,",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","cu Title "Cu ( In , Ga ) Se thin- " lm solar cells with an e \$ ciency of 18 \%",",67,,","331--335",2001,",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","cu
Author: Negami, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro & Nishiwaki, Shiro
electric property, electrode lm thin","," 7,","Nelson2002","Nelson owing to its sim-
thin","," 7,","Nelson2002","Nelson
and this extrapolation function is accordingly recommended in the case of data from well constructed cameras. Other extrapolation functions are also considered
More details: the role of ion-selectivetiometry in the environmental","," 7,","Nguyen201439","NguyenHue M T; TangHsin-Yu; HuangWen-Fei & Lin

silver chalcogenide membranes

### Infrared spectra of sodium phosphate glasses

Title Infrared spectra of sodium phosphate glasses
Author: Moustafa, Y M & El-Egili, K
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1998
1998
://000076724000015>://000076724000015
More details: Infrared absorption spectra of sodium phosphate glasses, Na2O 0-50 mol\%, have been studied in the region of 400-2000 cm(-1). Spectra were analyzed to determine the relative intensity of the IR bands responsible for the different phosphate units. Spectral analyses has shown that the substitution of P2O5 by Na2O influences the intermediate range order of the glass matrix. Increasing NaO content leads to a gradual degradation of the phosphate ring type structures, with consequent depolymerization causing compaction of the glass matrix. Analyses of IR spectra illustrates the reorganization effects of Na2O in the phosphate matrix. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.absorption spectra,borate glasses,borophosphate glasses,electrical-properties,nmr,oxyhalide glasses,short-range order,spectroscopy,superionic glasses,system
ISBN0022-3093

### Structural and electrical conductivity studies of polycrystalline copper selenide at low temperature

Title Structural and electrical conductivity studies of polycrystalline copper selenide at low temperature
Author: Moksin, MM; Lim, KP & Yusoff, WDW
Solid State Science and Technology, 2008
2008
More details:

### Deposition techniques for the preparation of thin film nuclear targets

Title Deposition techniques for the preparation of thin film nuclear targets
Author: Muggleton, A H F
Vacuum, 1987
1987
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0042207X87901801
More details: Of all the diverse physical, chemical and mechanical techniques used to make thin film nuclear targets, material deposition by vacuum evaporation is the most widely employed. This review commences with a brief description of the basic principles that regulate vacuum evaporation and the physical processes involved in thin film formation, followed by a description of the experimental methods used. The principal methods of heating the evaporant are detailed and the means of measuring and controlling the film thickness are elucidated. Types of thin film nuclear targets are considered and various film release agents are listed. Thin film nuclear target behaviour under ion bombardment is described and the dependence of nuclear experimental results upon target thickness and uniformity is outlined. Parameters such as thermal effects, radiation damage and sputtering of target material all influence the useful lifetime of thin nuclear targets. Target impurities can also have a serious effect upon experimental results; these effects are briefly considered. Special problems associated with preparing suitable targets for lifetime measurements are discussed. Carbon is used extensively as a target material and also for the manufacture of stripper-foils to change the polarity of the accelerated ions. The causes of stripper-foil thickening and breaking under heavy-ion bombardment are considered. A comparison is made between foils manufactured by a glow discharge process and those produced by vacuum sublimation. Consideration is given to the methods of carbon stripper-foil manufacture and to the characteristics of stripper-foils made by different techniques. Various methods to increase stripper-foil lifetimes are considered. Finally, techniques are described that have been developed for the fabrication of special targets, both from natural and isotopically enriched material, and also of elements that are either chemically unstable, or thermally unstable under irradiation. The reduction of metal oxides by the use of hydrogen or by utilising a metallothermic technique and the simultaneous evaporation of reduced rare earth elements is described. A comprehensive list of the common targets is presented.

### The isomolecular exchange reaction Ga2S(g) + In2S(g) = 2 InGaS(g)

Title The isomolecular exchange reaction Ga2S(g) + In2S(g) InGaS(g)
Author: Mukdeeprom, Pannee & Edwards, Jimmie G
Thermochimica Acta, 1987
1987
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0040603187882710
More details: Equilibria involving the molecules Ga2S(g), In2S(g), and InGaS(g), by the reaction Ga2S(g) + In2S(g) 2InGaS(g) were investigated between 1060?��1350 K by the Knudsen-effusion, mass-spectrometric method. The reaction enthalpy at 298 K was calculated to be 0??1 kJ mol?��1. The enthalpy of formation of InGaS at 298 K and the enthalpy of atomization of InGaS at 298 K were calculated to be 80??18 kJ mol?��1 and 710??18 kJ mol?��1, respectively. The equilibrium constant and the enthalpy of reaction indicated that the three gaseous molecules have a bent triatomic structure in which S is a center atom and no bond between metals.

### Modeling solar cells: A method for improving their efficiency

Title Modeling solar cells: A method for improving their efficiency
Author: Morales-Acevedo, Arturo; Hern\'{a}ndez-Como, Norberto & Casados-Cruz, Gaspar
Materials Science and Engineering: B, Elsevier B.V. September 2012
2012
More details:

### A review of III???V semiconductor based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures and devices

Title A review of III?��V semiconductor based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures and devices
Author: Mui, D S L; Wang, Z & Morko\c{c}, H
Thin Solid Films, 1993
1993
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004060909390707V
More details: Recent breakthroughs in the deposition of multilayer semiconductor/dielectric systems have potentially paved the way for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with excellent interface properties to be achieved. In this paper, we review the recent progress in III?��V \{MIS\} structures and divices. The semiconductors of interest are In0.53Ga0.47As, InP, and GaAs with their excellent electrical properties. These III?��V semiconductor based \{MIS\} structures have shown steady progress over the past few years, taking advantage of the in situ deposited heteromorphic insulators that led to insulator/III?��V compound semiconductor (ICS) interfaces with low interface trap density. Though preliminary in nature, with Si3N4 gate dielectric, minimum interface state densities in the region of low 1010 eV?��1 cm?��2 have been obtained in GaAs albeit with some frequwncy shift and a deep interface trap. The structures in InGaAs have so far shown minimum interface state densities in the low 1011 eV?��1 cm?��2 region and very little frequency dispersion. They are void of mid-gap interface traps, and given the recent ongoing developments, it is extremely likely that interface state densities similar to those in GaAs should be possible shortly. Metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors with transconductances of over 200 mS mm?��1 have already been fabricated in InGaAs channels. In situ insulator deposition has been demonstrated to be very effective in avoiding interfacial contamination, for example, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon, a scheme deemed extremely pivotal in the eventual realization of high quality \{ICS\} interfaces. Apart from technological difficulties in realizing III?��V semiconductor \{MIS\} devices, interpretation of the electrical properties of \{ICS\} interfaces is still not well understood. Also discussed in this paper are the issues involved in characterizing \{ICS\} interfaces.

### 6 - Aqueous Metal Solutions and Electrochemistry

Title 6 - Aqueous Metal Solutions and Electrochemistry
Author: MOORE, J J
, Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
1990
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780408053693500104
More details:
ISBN978-0-408-05369-3

### Chemical Bath Deposition of tin sulphide thin films in acid solution

Title Chemical Bath Deposition of tin sulphide thin films in acid solution
Author: Mnari, M; Kamoun, N; Bonnet, J & Dachraoui, M
Comptes rendus - Chimie, Elsevier Masson SAS 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2009.01.005
More details: acid solution,chemical bath deposition in,chemical composition,roughness,thin films,tin sulphide

### One-step growth of silica nanotubes and simultaneous filling with indium sulfide nanorods

Title One-step growth of silica nanotubes and simultaneous filling with indium sulfide nanorods
Author: Liang, Changhao; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Umehara, Hiroyuki & Koshizaki, Naoto
Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2004
2004
More details:

### Effects of (NH4)2Sx treatment on surface work function and roughness of indium???tin-oxide

Title Effects of (NH4)2Sx treatment on surface work function and roughness of indium?��tin-oxide
Author: Lin, Yow-Jon; You, Chang-Feng & Tsai, Chia-Lung
Applied Surface Science, 2007
2007
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433206011639
More details: In this study, the effects of an (NH4)2Sx treatment on the surface work function (SWF) and roughness of indium?��tin-oxide (ITO) have been investigated. From the observed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, optical transmittance measurements, atomic force microscopy measurements and four-point probe measurements, it is suggested that the surface chemical changes and an increase in the sheet resistance had strong effects on the \{SWF\} of ITO. We find that the S occupation of oxygen vacancies near the \{ITO\} surface after (NH4)2Sx treatment may result in a marked increase in the \{SWF\} and a slight increase in the surface roughness. Surface treatment,Work function,\{ITO\},\{XPS\}

### M","Growth of CuS thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method","Applied Surface Science",,,","75--80",2000,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433299005826",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","cus

Title M","Growth of CuS thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method","Applied Surface Science",,,","75--80",2000,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433299005826",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","cus
Author: "Lindroos, Seppo; Arnold, Alexandre & Leskel\"{a}
sem, John F","Light Sources",",,,","557--595",2003,"New York",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122274105003781","Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition)",","Third Edit",","Meyers xrd","," 6,","Linet2009","Linet S Mary Navis; Dinakaran Alejandro L; Mannsfeld
S Mary Navis; Dinakaran
L-Ascorbic acid ) admixtured TGS crystals",",,,","4--5",2009,",",","EIGHTH DAE-BRNS NATIONAL LASER SYMPOSIUM- NLS-08",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","," 7,","Ling2004","Ling
More details: Fangyang; LiYi; ZhangKun; WangBo; YanChang; Lai

Zhenan","Controlled Deposition of Crystalline Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect-Transistor Applications",",,,","1217--1232",2009,",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","," 7,","Liu2010","Liu

### Joachim; Rech

Title Joachim; Rech
Author: "M\"{u}ller
Bernd; Springer, Andrew R","Indium tert-butylthiolates as single source precursors for indium sulfide thin films: Is molecular design enough?","Journal of Organometallic Chemistry",449,1-2,"May","95--104",1993,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022328X9380111N http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0022328X9380111N",",",",",",",",",",",",","The dimeric indium thiolates [R2In($\mu$-StBu)]2 R ?�? tBu (1) D K C & Sarginson George","C",",,,","79--206",1980,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080238883500117","Solar Energy Index",",",","Machovec deposition at temperatures between 290 and 350??C results in the formation of indium rich films (In: S ?�? 2) consisting of indium metal and orthorhombic InS
George","C",",,,","79--206",1980,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080238883500117","Solar Energy Index",",",","Machovec
George","Pergamon",",",",",",",",",","," 5,"978-0-08-023888-3","Machovec1980a","Machovec
More details: they consist of an indium rich phase and In2S3. The dependence of the film composition i.e.indium rich versus stoichiometric InS and structure (orthorhombic versus tetrag onal InS) with the deposition temperature and molecular precursor is discussed with respect to the decomposition pathways available to the precursor molecules (1?��3). Based on these results compound 4 was proposed to be a suitable precursor for the low temperature deposition of stoichiometric InSindeed its solid state pyrolysis does yield InS. Howeveralthough low pressure \{MOCVD\} using 4 yields amorphous films of stoichiometry InSupon annealing $\beta$-In2S3 is formed as the crystalline phase. The efficacy of molecular design of solid state materials is discussed. The indium thiolates were characterized by 1H and 13C \{NMR\} spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Analysis of the deposited films has been obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

is the only product deposited. Use of compound 3 as the precursor results in amorphous indium rich films being deposited at 300??C. While films grown from 3 at 400??C have a In: S ratio of 1

### Chemical Bath Deposition of tin sulphide thin films in acid solution

Title Chemical Bath Deposition of tin sulphide thin films in acid solution
Author: Mnari, M; Kamoun, N; Bonnet, J & Dachraoui, M
Comptes rendus - Chimie, Elsevier Masson SAS 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2009.01.005
More details: acid solution,chemical bath deposition in,chemical composition,roughness,thin films,tin sulphide

### Effects of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide/conducting polymer electrodes

Title Effects of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide/conducting polymer electrodes
Author: Lin, Yow-Jon; Liu, Bei-Yuan & Chin, Yi-Min
Thin Solid Films, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004060900900786X
More details: In this study, the effects of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the electrical and optical properties of the indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes were researched. The authors found that (NH4)2Sx treatment could result in suppressing the hysteresis-type current?��voltage characteristics related to the interfacial capacitance variation and a reduction in the equivalent refractive index of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrodes, owing to the improvement in the interfacial stability of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrodes and a reduction in the interface trap-states related charge store at the ITO/PEDOT:PSS interface. This implies that the ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrodes fabricated using the (NH4)2Sx-treated \{ITO\} may produce a higher extraction efficiency for ITO/PEDOT:PSS-based optoelectronic devices. Defects,Oxides,Polymers,Surface treatment,Transmittance

### Current Trends in Preclinical \PET\ System Design

Title Current Trends in Preclinical \PET\ System Design
Author: Levin, Craig S & Zaidi, Habib
\{PET\} Clinics, 2007
2007
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1556859807000545
More details: \{PET\} is used in laboratory small-animal research to visualize and track certain molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurologic disorders in living small-animal models of disease. The current and next generation of \{PET\} molecular imaging probes, assays, and imaging systems still have substantial room to improve PET's ability to detect, visualize, and quantify low concentrations of probe interacting with its target, which we refer to as the molecular sensitivity. This article focuses on the challenges of advancing \{PET\} system and some of the new imaging system technologies under investigation to enhance PET's molecular sensitivity substantially.

\{PET\} Instrumentation and Quantification

### Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

Title Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products
Author: Kowalewska, Zofia
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 2011
2011
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0584854711001066
More details: For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the \{CS\} molecule, belonging to the ?��$\nu$\&\#xa0;\#xa0;0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X1?��+\&\#xa0;?��\&\#xa0;A1?�, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd\&\#xa0;+\&\#xa0;Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of PdxSy molecules. At the 258.056\&\#xa0;nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel ??\&\#xa0;5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14\&\#xa0;ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18\&\#xa0;mg\&\#xa0;kg?��1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12\&\#xa0;ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104\&\#xa0;mg\&\#xa0;kg?��1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with sulphur content determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Continuum source,Molecular absorption spectrometry,Palladium modifier,Petroleum,Sulphur determination

Thematic Issue: European Symposium on Atomic Spectrometry (ESAS 2010)

### Development of copperindiumdisulfide into a solar material

Title Development of copperindiumdisulfide into a solar material
Author: Lewerenz, H J
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024804001114
More details: The historic development of the ternary chalcopyrite CuInS2 into an efficient thin film solar cell absorber material is reviewed beginning with the preparation and analysis of crystalline and large grain polycrystalline material. The room temperature phase relations obtained by a combination of the nuclear probe method perturbed angular correlations and X-ray diffraction are presented. It is shown that despite the efforts in analysis and crystal preparation, the solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency remained generally restricted to values around 4\%. Whereas a singular growth result yielding 9.7\% efficiency in a photoelectro-chemical solar cell was obtained on n-type material, the subsequent successful development of thin film absorbers prepared by physical vapor deposition used p-type samples. The compositional and optoelectronic properties of these samples are described and a selection of recently achieved improvements, based on electrochemical conditioning, is presented. In the effort of elucidating the interface behavior of the \{1\&\#xa0;1\&\#xa0;2\} growth face which dominates at the polycrystalline absorber surface the preparation of epitaxial thin films have been prepared and their properties are shortly described. Aspects for implementation of this chalcopyrite in a solar technology are discussed. CuInS2,Electrochemical conditioning,Thin films

Special issue dedicated to Prof. Dr. H. Tributsch on the occasion of his 60th birthday

### Effect of crystal structure of manganese dioxide on response for electrolyte of a hydrogen sensor operative at room temperature

Title Effect of crystal structure of manganese dioxide on response for electrolyte of a hydrogen sensor operative at room temperature
Author: Koyanaka, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takeuchi, Ken & Kolesnikov, Alexander I
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2013
2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400513003559
More details: Abstract Sensoring properties of a hydrogen sensor that used electrolytes made of different crystal type manganese dioxides were compared. An electrolyte made of a manganese dioxide, which has a high purity of ramsdellite-type crystal structure, provided the best characteristics for the hydrogen sensor. To explain the sensor property, network model of oxygen-pairs to store protons with a weak covalent bond and to conduct protons along the network in the ideal crystal structure of ramsdellite manganese dioxide was proposed. The inter-atomic distance of those oxygen-pairs in the high purity of ramsdellite manganese dioxide was estimated between 2.57 and 2.60\&\#xa0;\AA using inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The property of the hydrogen sensor supported the unique proton conduction based on the network model. Hydrogen sensor,Inelastic neutron scattering,Manganese dioxide,Proton conduction,Surface proton,Weak covalent bond

### Theoretical study of the gas sensitivity and response time of metal oxide thin films

Title Theoretical study of the gas sensitivity and response time of metal oxide thin films
Author: Li, J.C.; Han, X.B.; Jiang, Y.H. & Ba, D.C.
Thin Solid Films, November 2011
2011
More details: lm,metal oxide thin fi

### Synthesis and characterisation of co-evaporated tin sulphide thin films

Title Synthesis and characterisation of co-evaporated tin sulphide thin films
Author: Koteeswara Reddy, N.; Ramesh, K.; Ganesan, R.; Ramakrishna Reddy, K.T.; Gunasekhar, K.R. & Gopal, E.S.R.
Applied Physics A, January 2006
2006
More details:

### \CHAPTER\ 7 - Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, and Thallium (Group IIIA)

Title \CHAPTER\ 7 - Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, and Thallium (Group IIIA)
Author: Klabunde, Kenneth J