### Abstracts of papers presented at the international atomic energy agency conference on the use of radioisotopes in the physical sciences and industry: Copenhagen, 6???17 September 1960

Title Abstracts of papers presented at the international atomic energy agency conference on the use of radioisotopes in the physical sciences and industry: Copenhagen, 6?��17 September 1960
Author:
The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 1960
1960
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0020708X6090034X
More details:

### Program the Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association and Digestive Disease Week

Title Program the Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association and Digestive Disease Week
Author:
Gastroenterology, 1995
1995
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016508595226699
More details:
ISBN0016-5085
The American Gastroenterological Association and Digestive Disease Week

### Liquid column chromatography

Title Liquid column chromatography
Author:
Journal of Chromatography A, 1991
1991
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002196739180040N
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### Analytical biotechnology

Title Analytical biotechnology
Author:
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 1996
1996
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958166996801078
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### Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids Volume II : Electronic Prperties

Title Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids Volume II : Electronic Prperties
Author:
, Springer 2009
2009
http://www.springer.com/978-3-540-85315-2
More details:
ISBN978-3-540-85315-2

### Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

Title Radioactivity measurements principles and practice
Author:
International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part A. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, January 1988
1988
More details:

### Magnetic fluids bibliography

Title Magnetic fluids bibliography
Author:
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 1983
1983
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304885383904328
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### Liquid column chromatography

Title Liquid column chromatography
Author:
Journal of Chromatography A, 1985
1985
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967300915310
More details:

### Section 1 - Directory of manufacturers, country by country

Title Section 1 - Directory of manufacturers, country by country
Author:
, Elsevier 1990
1990
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780948577390500063
More details:
ISBN978-0-948577-39-0

### Section 2 - Directory of agents and representatives, country by country

Title Section 2 - Directory of agents and representatives, country by country
Author:
, Elsevier 1993
1993
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856171755500062
More details:
ISBN978-1-85617-175-5

### Chapter 7 Current phosphor device technology

Title Chapter 7 Current phosphor device technology
Author:
, Elsevier 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169315804800100
More details: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the latest devices and the phosphors currently employed in them. Many phosphors that have been developed for the particular display purposes are discussed. The chapter discusses how the light sources such as, incandescent and fluorescent lamps are going to become obsolete as the quality of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) improves. The phosphors will continue to be used to make light emitting \{LED\} light sources. The main advantage of the \{LED\} lamp is that, it uses milliwatts of power, compared to watts of power for the incandescent and fluorescent lamp. The chapter surveys the present-day devices utilizing phosphors emphasizing the recent improvements made in cathode-ray tubes (CRT) and fluorescent lamps. The devices that depend upon thin film deposition for the manufacture of the appliance are described. The devices that use phosphors responding to high energy photons like X-rays and gamma rays (high energy X-rays) are described. The chapter also describes scintillators that are the phosphors used to detect $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ rays from incident sources.

### \CHAPTER\ 6 - Classification of \EDTA\ Complexes

Title \CHAPTER\ 6 - Classification of \EDTA\ Complexes
Author:
, Pergamon 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080262772500121
More details:
ISBN978-0-08-026277-2

### Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Crystallization Of Particulates And Proteins

Title Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Crystallization Of Particulates And Proteins
Author:
, Elsevier 2001
2001
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383730301800545
More details: Publisher Summary The chapter overviews the methods for producing ordered two-dimensional arrays from colloid particles and proteins in relation to their physical mechanisms and driving forces. The chapter focuses on the method for obtaining particle and protein two- dimensional arrays in evaporating liquid suspension films. The respective mechanism of two-dimensional crystallization is based on the fact that the decrease of the film thickness (because of evaporation) forces the particles to enter and/or deform the liquid interface that automatically ?ǣswitches on?�? the strong attraction because of the capillary immersion force. The chapter describes the the occurrence and advantages of two-dimensional array formation over a liquid substrate: fluorinated oil and mercury. The particle size separation during two-dimensional crystallization and the methods for obtaining large two-dimensional crystalline coatings on solid substrates are described in the chapter. This chapter considers only the formation of two-dimensional arrays in free foam films and their observation by electron cryomicroscopy, which ensures an excellent structure preservation of delicate vesicles or molecular complexes. The chapter reviews the various applications of particulate two-dimensional arrays in optics, optoelectronics, nano-lithography, microcontact printing, in fabrication of nanostructured surfaces for catalytic films and solar cells, as well as the usage of protein two-dimensional crystals for immunosensors and extremely isoporous ultrafiltration membranes?��for creation of bioelectronic and biophotonic devices.

### Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibration on flexible cylinders

Title Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibration on flexible cylinders
Author: Yamamoto, C.T.; Meneghini, J.R.; Saltara, F.; Fregonesi, R.a. & Ferrari, J.a.
Journal of Fluids and Structures, May 2004
2004
More details:

### 7 - Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium

Title 7 - Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium
Author:
, Butterworth-Heinemann 1997
1997
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750633659500134
More details: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the discovery, isolation, abundance, and distribution of aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium. Aluminum is a major constituent of many common igneous minerals, including feldspars and micas. Gallium, indium, and thallium are less abundant than aluminum and tend to occur at low concentrations in sulfide minerals rather than in oxides. The chapter describes the preparation and uses of the aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium. The production of aluminum metal involves two stages: first, the extraction, purification, and dehydration of bauxite, and, second, the process of electrolysis of aluminum oxide dissolved in molten cryolite. The chapter also discusses the atomic and physical properties of aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium. Indium is a soft and silvery metal with a brilliant luster. Its important applications are in low-melting alloys and in electronic devices. Technical-grade thallium is purified from other flue-dust elements by dissolving it in warm dilute acid and then precipitating the insoluble lead sulfate and adding hydrogen chloride to precipitate thallium chloride.
ISBN978-0-7506-3365-9

### Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Crystallization Of Particulates And Proteins

Title Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Crystallization Of Particulates And Proteins
Author:
, Elsevier 2001
2001
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383730301800545
More details: Publisher Summary The chapter overviews the methods for producing ordered two-dimensional arrays from colloid particles and proteins in relation to their physical mechanisms and driving forces. The chapter focuses on the method for obtaining particle and protein two- dimensional arrays in evaporating liquid suspension films. The respective mechanism of two-dimensional crystallization is based on the fact that the decrease of the film thickness (because of evaporation) forces the particles to enter and/or deform the liquid interface that automatically ?ǣswitches on?�? the strong attraction because of the capillary immersion force. The chapter describes the the occurrence and advantages of two-dimensional array formation over a liquid substrate: fluorinated oil and mercury. The particle size separation during two-dimensional crystallization and the methods for obtaining large two-dimensional crystalline coatings on solid substrates are described in the chapter. This chapter considers only the formation of two-dimensional arrays in free foam films and their observation by electron cryomicroscopy, which ensures an excellent structure preservation of delicate vesicles or molecular complexes. The chapter reviews the various applications of particulate two-dimensional arrays in optics, optoelectronics, nano-lithography, microcontact printing, in fabrication of nanostructured surfaces for catalytic films and solar cells, as well as the usage of protein two-dimensional crystals for immunosensors and extremely isoporous ultrafiltration membranes?��for creation of bioelectronic and biophotonic devices.

### Chapter 6 Friction

Title Chapter 6 Friction
Author:
, Elsevier 1981
1981
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167892208706795
More details: Publisher Summary The friction between two solid surfaces in solid-state contact is the resistance to tangential motion of one surface over the other, whether that motion be sliding, rolling, or rubbing contact. There are two types of friction, static and dynamic. Static friction is the force required to initiate motion between two solid surfaces, or the force necessary to break the junctions that form at the interface between two solid surfaces. Dynamic friction is the friction associated with one surface sliding, rolling, or rubbing over another. Many compounds are added to conventional oils to act as extreme pressure or anti-wear additives in lubricants. There are also solid film lubricants that are applied to surfaces to reduce adhesion, friction, and wear. Many of these compounds rely on a reaction with the solid surface to provide a protective surface film. The coefficient of friction is the frictional force divided by the load applied to the two surfaces in contact.

Author:
, Elsevier 1981
1981
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167892208706783
More details: Publisher Summary When two solid surfaces are brought into contact, adhesion or bonding across the interface can occur. If two solid surfaces are clean and all of the adsorbates are removed, adhesion or bonding of one solid to another always occurs. The nature of the bond strength formed at the interface between the two solid surfaces is a function of the materials in contact. Both adhesion and cohesion are extremely important to the tribologist because they can dictate, to a very large extent, the adhesion and friction forces measured between two solid surfaces in contact. The function of a lubricant is to reduce and minimize the adhesive forces. Solids can be divided into two classes: (1) the relatively brittle materials, and (2) the plastic, or ductile, materials. The simplest way to demonstrate the cohesive bonding forces in a solid is to cleave it along its cleavage plane.

### Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces

Title Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces
Author: Zumbuhl, D.
Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics and Quantum Dots, 2006
2006
http://zumbuhllab.unibas.ch/pdf/teaching/WS0607-MesoDots/061126\_WS0607\_SurfInterf.pdf
More details:

### Indium sulfide microflowers: Fabrication and optical properties

Title Indium sulfide microflowers: Fabrication and optical properties
Author: Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Wen; Yang, Fan & Yang, Xiurong
Materials Research Bulletin, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025540809001755
More details: With the assistance of urea, uniform 2D nanoflakes assembled 3D In2S3 microflowers were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method at relative low temperature. The properties of the as-obtained In2S3 flowers were characterized by various techniques. In this work, the utilization of urea and l-cysteine, as well as the amount of them played important roles in the formation of In2S3 with different nanostructures. Inferred from their morphology evolution, a urea induced precursor-decomposition associated with the Ostwald-ripening mechanism was proposed to interpret these hierarchical structure formation. Furthermore, the optical properties of these In2S3 microflowers were investigated via UV?��vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies in detail. A. Semiconductors,B. Chemical synthesis,C. Electron microscopy,D. Luminescence,D. Optical properties

### 5.06 - Nanocrystal Synthesis

Title 5.06 - Nanocrystal Synthesis
Author: Zhong, H; Mirkovic, T & Scholes, G D
2011
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123743961000519
More details: Nanocrystals exhibit interesting optical, electrical, and chemical properties that are not found in their bulk counterparts. Quantum-confinement effects mean that small changes in their size and shape can have significant effects on physical properties and spectroscopy of nanocrystals. Size and shape control has been a hot topic during the development of the field of nanocrystal synthesis. Current success in colloidal chemistry has produced a great variety of nanocrystals with controlled size and shape, which could be used as functional materials for numerous applications. In addition to size and shape control, phase and composition control also provides additional space to tune the properties of nanocrystals. Further exploration on nanocrystal synthesis has led to the preparation of new-generation nanocrystals, including nanocrystal heterostructures and doped nanocrystals. In this chapter, we present an overview of nanocrystal synthesis with an emphasis on the solution synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Colloidal chemistry,Composition control,Core?��shell dots,Doped nanocrystals,Nanocrystal growth,Nanocrystal heterostructures,Nanocrystal synthesis,Phase control,Quantum dots,Semiconductor nanocrystals,Shape control,Size control
ISBN978-0-12-374396-1

### Effect of silica wall microporosity on the state and performance of TiO2 nanocrystals in SBA-15 matrix

Title Effect of silica wall microporosity on the state and performance of TiO2 nanocrystals in SBA-15 matrix
Author: Zukerman, Roie; Vradman, Leonid; Titelman, Leonid; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Landau, Miron V & Herskowitz, Moti
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2008
2008
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387181108001856
More details: TiO2 guest phase was incorporated by internal hydrolysis (IH) method inside SBA-15 mesostructured silica matrices with high and low microporosity (14.2\% and 4.7\% of microporous pore volume, respectively). TiO2 phase was located inside the SBA-15 pores in form of small crystals with anatase structure without blocking the mesopores over wide range of loadings (8?��50\&\#xa0;wt\%) (N2 sorption, \{HRTEM\} and XRD). In the highly microporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-HM), the crystallization of titania anatase phase was detected at 150\&\#xa0;??C due to initiation of the crystallization process in the micropores. This is supported by the fact that the crystallization was significantly delayed and started at 350\&\#xa0;??C inside the SBA-15 with low microporosity (SBA-15-LM). Therefore, it was proposed that the formation of nanocrystalline titania in SBA-15 micropores initiates the nucleation stage thus enhancing the crystallization process of titania in the mesopores. Furthermore, micropores enhanced the dispersion of TiO2 phase. As a result, TiO2/SBA-15-HM adsorbed more vanadia than TiO2/SBA-15-LM. The catalytic activity in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of \{NO\} with ammonia was proportional to the vanadia content. Thus, V2O5-TiO2/SBA-15-HM catalysts were more active than V2O5?��TiO2/SBA-15-LM at all TiO2 loadings due to the higher vanadia content in TiO2/SBA-15-HM than in TiO2/SBA-15-LM. These results show that SBA-15 wall microporosity strongly affects the crystallization, state and performance of the guest phase confined in mesoporous channels of silica matrix. Confined phase,Crystallization,SBA-15 microporosity,Titania,\{NOx\} \{SCR\}

### Fabrication of indium sulfide nanofibers via a hydrothermal method assisted by \AAO\ template

Title Fabrication of indium sulfide nanofibers via a hydrothermal method assisted by \AAO\ template
Author: Zhu, Xiaoyi; Ma, Junfeng; Wang, Yonggang; Tao, Jiantao; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, Zhongqiang; Xie, Lijin & Tian, Hua
Materials Research Bulletin, 2006
2006
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025540806000626
More details: $\beta$-In2S3 nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method with \{AAO\} membrane as a template at 150\&\#xa0;??C for 15\&\#xa0;h. \{XRD\} patterns indicated the perfect crystallization of $\beta$-In2S3. \{SEM\} images showed that the $\beta$-In2S3 nanofibers grew up from the channel ends of the \{AAO\} template. \{TEM\} images confirmed that the nanofibers had a high aspect ratio of ca. 40?��50 and diameters of about 10\&\#xa0;nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the $\beta$-In2S3 nanofibers indicated its potential applications in light-emission devices.

### Hydrothermal syntheses and characterization of two tetramethylammonium templated indium sulfides

Title Hydrothermal syntheses and characterization of two tetramethylammonium templated indium sulfides
Author: Zhang, Chi; Liu, Jinming; Ji, Min & An, Yonglin
Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Elsevier B.V. June 2014
2014
More details: Crystal structure,Hydrothermal synthesis,Indium sulfide,Template effect,hydrothermal synthesis

### Cubic clusters of indium chalcogenides with 2,2-bipyridine ligand, a comprehensive view of [InQ(phen/bpy)Cl]4 (Q\&\#xa0;=\&\#xa0;S, Se) compounds

Title Cubic clusters of indium chalcogenides with 2,2-bipyridine ligand, a comprehensive view of [InQ(phen/bpy)Cl]4 (Q\&\#xa0;\#xa0;S, Se) compounds
Author: Zhang, Ya-Ping; Lei, Zhi-Xin; Jiang, Jian-Bing; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Zhang, Xu; Bian, Guo-Qing & Dai, Jie
Inorganica Chimica Acta, 2011
2011
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020169311005652
More details: We have reported main group metal chalcogenido clusters of cubic [InQ(phen)Cl]4 (Q\&\#xa0;\#xa0;S (1) and Se (2); phen\&\#xa0;\#xa0;1,10-phenanthroline). Herein two new cubic clusters with ligand of 2,2?�?-bipyridine (bpy) have been synthesized by solvothermal technique, [InSe(bpy)Cl]4 (3) and [InS(bpy)Cl]4??H2O (4). The molecular structures and electronic states of compounds 3 and 4 are presented by comparing with those of 1 and 2. Though the clusters of 1?��4 are similar, their packing structures show diverse modes. Spectroscopic study and theoretical calculation indicate that introducing phen/bpy to chalcogenido clusters can decrease the energy gap of frontier orbitals from \{HOMO\} to \{LUMO\} due to the cluster to ligand charge-transfer (CLCT). Increasing the conjugated system of the organic ligand or using the heavier chalcogenido element might improve the photophysical absorption of the materials. Chalcogens,Charge transfer,Cluster compounds,Indium,Structure elucidation

### Applied Surface Science Synthesis and magnetic properties of Cu-coated Fe composite nanoparticles

Title Applied Surface Science Synthesis and magnetic properties of Cu-coated Fe composite nanoparticles
Author: Zhang, Xia; Wang, Baosheng & Xu, Xinxin
Applied Surface Science, Elsevier B.V. 2010
2010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.01.092
More details:

### Morphology and fluorescence spectra of rubrene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport

Title Morphology and fluorescence spectra of rubrene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport
Author: Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian; Wang, Liduo; Dong, Guifang & Qiu, Yong
Applied Surface Science, May 2007
2007
More details: fluorescence spectrum,morphology,physical vapor transport,rubrene,single crystal

### Main group coordination chemistry at low temperatures: A review of matrix isolated Group 12 to Group 18 complexes

Title Main group coordination chemistry at low temperatures: A review of matrix isolated Group 12 to Group 18 complexes
Author: Young, Nigel A
Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 2013
2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010854512002603
More details: The available data on main group (Groups 12?��18) Lewis acid?��base, donor?��acceptor, charge-transfer and van der Waals complexes stabilised by matrix isolation techniques are presented, tabulated and evaluated in conjunction with data from complementary gas phase experiments and computational chemistry. Charge transfer,Coordination complexes,Donor?��acceptor,Lewis acid?��base,Matrix isolation,van der Waals

Recent Developments in Main Group Chemistry

### High yield???low temperature growth of indium sulphide nanowires via chemical vapor deposition

Title High yield?��low temperature growth of indium sulphide nanowires via chemical vapor deposition
Author: Zervos, Matthew; Papageorgiou, Pola & Othonos, Andreas
Journal of Crystal Growth, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022024809011063
More details: Indium sulphide nanowires (NWs) have been grown on Si via the reaction of In and InCl3 with \{H2S\} using chemical vapor deposition at temperatures as low as 250\&\#xa0;??C. We find that the growth of InxSy \{NWs\} via the direct reaction of In with \{H2S\} is hindered by the formation of InxSy around the source of In which limits its vapor pressure. Thus a low yield of InxSy \{NWs\} with diameters of ?��100\&\#xa0;nm, lengths up to ?��5\&\#xa0;$\mu$m and hexagonal crystals measuring ?��500\&\#xa0;nm across, were obtained between 500 and 600\&\#xa0;??C, but their growth was not uniform or reproducible. These exhibited weak, but nevertheless clear peaks, in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum corresponding to tetragonal $\beta$-In2S3 and orthorhombic InS. No \{NWs\} were obtained for TG?��500\&\#xa0;??C while for TG\>600\&\#xa0;??C we obtained a polycrystalline layer with oriented grains of triangular shape. In contrast, a high yield of InS \{NWs\} with diameters ?��200\&\#xa0;nm and lengths up to ?��2\&\#xa0;$\mu$m were obtained at temperatures as low as 250\&\#xa0;??C via the reaction of In and InCl3 with H2S. The sublimation of InCl3 enhances the vapor pressure of In and the growth of InS NWs, which organize themselves in urchin like structures at 300\&\#xa0;??C, exhibiting very intense peaks in the \{XRD\} spectrum, corresponding mainly to orthorhombic InS. Optical transmission measurements through the InS \{NWs\} gave a band-gap of 2.4\&\#xa0;eV. A1. Nanostructures,A3. Chemical vapor deposition processes,B1. Nanomaterials,B1. Sulfides,B2. Semiconducting materials

### Morphological characterization of pentacene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport

Title Morphological characterization of pentacene single crystals grown by physical vapor transport
Author: Zeng, Xionghui; Qiu, Yong; Qiao, Juan; Dong, Guifang & Wang, Liduo
Applied Surface Science, January 2007
2007
More details: growth mechanism,morphology,pentacene,physical vapor transport,single crystal

### Substrates for flexible electronics: A practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties

Title Substrates for flexible electronics: A practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties
Author: Zardetto, Valerio; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea & Di Carlo, Aldo
Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, May 2011
2011
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/polb.22227
More details: decade,flexible films,indium tin oxide,introduction in the past,ito,naphthalate,pen,pet,polyethylene,polyethylene teraphthalate,substrates,the industry and consumers,the interest from both,toward flexible electronic and

### Chemical vapor transport for the control of composition of low-volatile solids: II. The composition control of indium sulfides: Technique of the charge dilution

Title Chemical vapor transport for the control of composition of low-volatile solids: II. The composition control of indium sulfides: Technique of the charge dilution
Author: Zavrazhnov, A.Yu.; Naumov, A V; Pervov, V S & Riazhskikh, M V
Thermochimica Acta, 2012
2012
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040603110003692
More details: Considering chalcogenide transport processes with a participation of indium and indium sulfides in the closed system it was found that non-isothermal conditions are insufficient for a noticeable reversible indium transfer. The main reason for this fact was considered as a deficiency of indium halides with a high oxidation degree of indium which are in the equilibrium in the vapor with condensed indium or its lower sulfides. To provide chemical transport that is impossible in the usual experimental conditions a new way was proposed and applied implying dilution of a charge (source or getter of indium) with inactive diluent. One of the probable diluents is gold. The probability of reversible and selective chemical transport was proved for indium in the system ?ǣindium sulfides ?�� vapor of In chlorides ?�� (Au?��In) charge?�?. Conditions for performing the non-destructive composition control of indium sulfides in the non-destructive chemical transport were determined. Non-destructive composition control,Selective chemical vapor transport

The 21st \{IUPAC\} International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics (ICCT-2010)

### Study of the In???S phase diagram using spectrophotometric characterization of equilibria between hydrogen and indium sulfides

Title Study of the In?��S phase diagram using spectrophotometric characterization of equilibria between hydrogen and indium sulfides
Author: Zavrazhnov, A.Yu.; Kosyakov, A V; Naumov, A V; Sergeeva, A V & Berezin, S S
Thermochimica Acta, 2013
2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004060311300292X
More details: Abstract We have developed and put in practice a spectrophotometric procedure for hydrogen sulfide determination to study the phase diagram of the In?��S system using hydrogen as an auxiliary component. Elemental analysis of the hydrogen-containing vapor phase allows the principal thermodynamic properties of the indium sulfides in equilibrium with the vapor phase to be assessed in wide temperature and composition ranges. Our results confirm the existence of a narrow two-phase field between In3?��xS4 and In2S3?�? (low-temperature phase), which is bounded from above by the peritectic decomposition temperature of In2S3?�? (about 415\&\#xa0;??C). We have determined the temperature-dependent sulfur (S2) vapor pressure over condensed indium sulfides. For the equilibria studied in greatest detail, the present results correlate well with mass spectrometry data for indium sulfides. Auxiliary component method,Chemical vapor transport,Indium sulfides,Phase diagrams

### Chapter 6 - Density of solid???Inorganic compounds

Title Chapter 6 - Density of solid?��Inorganic compounds
Author: Yaws, Carl L & Chen, Daniel H
, William Andrew Publishing 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780815515968500110
More details: Publisher Summary This chapter presents the density of solid for inorganic compounds in tabular form. The tabulation is arranged by alphabetical order such as Ag, Al, Ar, and Zr to provide ease of use in quickly locating the data by using the chemical formula. The compound name and chemical abstracts registry number (CAS No) are also provided in columns. Values for representative temperature and density at the representative temperature are given in the adjacent columns. The next column provides the code for the tabulation. In preparing the tabulation, a literature search is conducted to identify data source publications. Both experimental values for the property under consideration and parameter values for estimation of the property are included in the source publications. The publications are screened, and copies of appropriate data are made. These data are keyed into the computer to provide a database of values for compounds for which experimental data are available. The database also serves as a basis to check the accuracy of the estimation methods. Upon completion of data collection, estimation of values for the remaining compounds is performed. The compilations of CRC, Daubert and Danner, Landolt and Bornstein, and Yaws are used extensively for solid density. Many of the estimates are based on extending the liquid density to the triple point.
ISBN978-0-8155-1596-8

### Effect of bath temperature on the electrodeposition of copper tin selenide films from aqueous solution

Title Effect of bath temperature on the electrodeposition of copper tin selenide films from aqueous solution
Author: Zainal, Zulkarnain; Kassim, Anuar; Zobir Hussein, Mohd & Hang Ching, Chuah
Materials Letters, June 2004
2004
More details: bath temperature,crystallinity,cu 2 snse 4,electrodeposition,thin films

### Electrodeposition of CuInS2 from aqueous solution (II) electrodeposition of CuInS2 film

Title Electrodeposition of CuInS2 from aqueous solution (II) electrodeposition of CuInS2 film
Author: Yukawa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Katsumi & Koumoto, Kunihito
Thin Solid Films, 1996
1996
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609096085458
More details: Copper indium disulphide, CuInS2 thin films were successfully prepared by electrodeposition without usual heat treatment in \{H2S\} atmosphere. Thin films were deposited from acidic aqueous solution containinng CuSO4, In2(SO4)3 and Na2S2O3 at ?��0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 300?��1200 s. Single phase CuInS2 films were obtained at pH about 1.5 by the correct adjustment of the Cu2+/In3+ ratio, with the concentration of Na2S2O3 fixed at 400 mM. Well-crystallized films were obtained by annealing in vacuum at 673 K. From \{EDX\} analysis, it was found that the compound CuInS2 did not always exist in exact stoichiometry of Cu:In:S :1:2. The conduction type of the film changed from p to n in the indium-rich region. This result suggests the possibility of controlling the properties of thin films by varying the concentration of each chemical in the initial electrolytic solution. Deposition process,Electrochemistry,Solar cells,Sulphides

### Optical and photoelectrical properties of $\beta$-In2S3 thin films prepared by two-stage process

Title Optical and photoelectrical properties of $\beta$-In2S3 thin films prepared by two-stage process
Author: Yoosuf, Rahana & Jayaraj, M K
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2005
2005
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024805000176
More details: $\beta$-In2S3 films were grown on glass as well as on quartz substrates by rapid heating of metallic indium films in \{H2S\} atmosphere. The effect of sulfurization temperature and time on the growth, structural, electrical and photoelectrical properties of $\beta$-In2S3 films has been investigated. Highly oriented single-phase $\beta$-In2S3 films were grown by the sulfurization technique. The morphology and composition of films have been characterized. The optical band gap of $\beta$-In2S3 is found to vary from 1.9 to 2.5\&\#xa0;eV when the sulfurization temperature is varied from 300 to 600\&\#xa0;??C or by increasing the sulfurization time. The electrical properties of the thin films have also been studied; they have n-type electrical conductivity. The photoelectrical properties of the $\beta$-In2S3 films are also found to depend on the sulfurizing temperature. A high photoresponse is obtained for films prepared at a sulfurizing temperature of 600\&\#xa0;??C. $\beta$-In2S3 can be used as an alternative to toxic CdS as a window layer in photovoltaic technology. Buffer layer,Chalcogenization,Solar cells,Sulfurization,Thermal evaporation,$\beta$-In2S3

### A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, \NW\ Turkey

Title A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, \NW\ Turkey
Author: Yigit, Ozcan
Ore Geology Reviews, 2012
2012
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169136812000650
More details: The Tethyan Metallogenic Belt (TMB), extending from Europe through Anatolia to Iran, is one of the world's major metal producing belts, and consists of many sectors. Mineral deposits of the Biga Peninsula in northwestern Turkey exhibit, in many ways, the characteristics of mineral deposits found throughout the belt. Biga Peninsula tectonically forms the westernmost part of the Sakarya Zone and easternmost part of the Rhodope Zone at the intersection of Gondwana and Laurasia. The Biga Peninsula metallogeny research and exploration project created a \{GIS\} inventory of mineral deposits and prospects, and classified them genetically to evaluate the mineral deposit potential using genetic models based on descriptive data. The \{GIS\} database, consisting of 128 deposits or prospects, helped to generate new prospects and potential prospects. This field-based study indicated that the Biga Peninsula forms a prime target for gold?��copper exploration not only in Turkey but in the world. The current economically significant mineral deposits of the Biga Peninsula were shaped by Cenozoic calc-alkaline magmatism, ranging between 52 and 18\&\#xa0;Ma, and related to mainly collisional and post-collisional tectonic regime. Epithermal Au?��Ag deposits including high-(HS), low-(LS) and intermediate-sulfidation (IS) styles, porphyry Au?��Cu?��Mo and base-metal skarn systems are economically the most important. Though there are no currently economic examples of some of them in the Biga Peninsula, other deposit types include Carlin-like distal disseminated Au?��Ag, orogenic Au, especially listwanite hosted, volcanogenic Mn and U, lateritic (ferricrete) Fe deposits, carbonate replacement (CR) and placers. Several active metal mines, such as Balya, Arapucandere and Koru, are operating in the Biga Peninsula. Kucukdere Au?��Ag deposit in Balikesir is the only gold mine in the Biga Peninsula, except for by-product gold produced from base-metal deposits. Results of the study show current total gold endowment of the Biga Peninsula including reserves and/or resources is 9.18\&\#xa0;Moz gold [284.2\&\#xa0;t] contained in twelve different deposits. Of these only 6 contain significant gold [\>\&\#xa0;0.3\&\#xa0;Moz or 10\&\#xa0;t]. Halilaga porphyry and Agi Dagi and Kirazli \{HS\} epithermal systems have an ongoing resource estimate, and Halilaga is a candidate to be one of the largest Cu?��Au deposits not only in the Biga Peninsula, but in Turkey. Currently newly discovered Tepeoba is the largest porphyry Cu?��Mo?��Au deposit with known resources in the Biga Peninsula. Here, the first40Ar/39Ar step-heating age data conducted on some of the major \{HS\} epithermal gold deposits and causative intrusives in the Biga Peninsula are reported. Geochronological results from this project, evaluated with previous studies, indicate at least 3 phases of porphyry and 2 phases of high-sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization in the Biga Peninsula. The most important mineralizing phases and related host rocks for gold mineralization range from 38 to 22\&\#xa0;Ma. The Oligocene is especially important for economic epithermal and porphyry systems in the Biga Peninsula, which is comparable to deposits in the Oligo-Miocene Serbomacedonian-Rhodope metallogenic belt of the Balkan Peninsula in \{SE\} Europe. Biga Peninsula,Epithermal,Geochronology,Mineral exploration,Porphyry Au?��Cu?��Mo,Skarn,Tethyan metallogeny,Turkey

### Indium and tin in basalts, sulfides, and the mantle

Title Indium and tin in basalts, sulfides, and the mantle
Author: Yi, Wen; Halliday, Alex N; Lee, Der-Chuen & Christensen, John N
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1995
1995
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703795003428
More details: The geochemistry of In and Sn are poorly understood, in part, because of difficulties in obtaining accurate concentrations for these elements in geological materials. Furthermore, InSn ratios in sulfides could be sufficiently high to facilitate the use of 115In?�?115Sn geochronology, if the separation and precise measurement techniques were available. In this paper we describe methods for the separation of In and Sn from silicates and sulfides. Indium can be measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) at very high sensitivity ( \> 13\%). However, its mass fractionation is difficult to correct reliably. Tin is more difficult to measure by \{TIMS\} because of its higher ionization potential. Both elements can be measured effectively using the new technique of MC-ICPMS, since the ionization efficiency is extremely high, molecular interferences are negligible, and mass fractionation in spiked In and Sn can be corrected by monitoring the mass bias in admixed Pd and Sb, respectively. Using these techniques, it is demonstrated that In and Sn concentrations can be measured reliably for silicates and sulfides. Indium and Sn data for international silicate rock standards are in excellent agreement with recommended values. The SnSm ratios determined for ocean island basalts (0113) are within the same range as those recently reported, where Sn was measured by spark source mass spectrometry. Indium is very uniform in \{OIB\} and behaves as a slightly incompatible trace element, comparable in bulk distribution coefficient to the heavy rare earths or Y. InY in 0113 is very uniform, averaging 0.0028 ?? 0.0005 (I$\sigma$), but is weakly related with PbCe, implying that these ratios may be partly controlled by sulfide at small degrees of partial melting. The similarity in average InY between OIB, N-MORB (0.0025) and the continental crust (0.0025), together with the similarity in SnSm in MORB, OIB, and continental crust contrasts with chalcophile/lithophile and siderophile/lithophile element ratios such as PbCe and WBa, which are high in the continental crust because of decoupling in the subduction environment. The overall behavior of both In and Sn within the silicate Earth is dominated by lithophile affinity. The primitive mantle is estimated to have InY .003 ??0.001, both higher and lower than previous estimates and corresponding to an In concentration of 14 ppb. Ignoring any In that may have been partitioned into the core, the corresponding total Earth concentration of \>10 ppb corresponds to \<85\% depletion relative to \{CI\} chondrites. This is less depleted than anticipated by at least a factor of 2, given the supposed volatility of In based on assumed condensation temperatures and depletions in volatile lithophile elements. There is no evidence that In has been segregated into the Earth's core. This can be explained if, during the earlier stages of accretion, under reducing conditions, In was too volatile to be transferred into the core. During the later stages of accretion, conditions may have been relatively oxidising such that In behaved as a lithophile element with higher condensation temperature rather than as a volatile chalcophile element. Hence, the InY ratio of Earth's primitive mantle may be representative of the mixture of volatile depleted and undepleted material that accreted in the inner solar system. \{SNC\} meteorites have a similar range of InY to the silicate Earth, suggesting Mars accreted from a similar mixture of material already depleted in In, and presumably other moderately volatile elements. In contrast, the InY ratio in lunar basalts ranges through four orders of magnitude from silicate Earth values in lunar soils to extremely In-depleted compositions. This is unlikely to be caused by heterogeneous distributions of extreme In depletion on the Moon as a result of volatile depletion. Rather, the more reducing conditions appear to result in In behaving as a relatively compatible trace element during lunar melting and differentiation. Although their behavior on Earth is strongly lithophile, In and Sn are sometimes enriched in sulfides and InSn can be sufficiently high in some sphalerite, chalcopyite, and tetrahedrite that the predicted 115Sn excess caused by decay of 115In in ancient sulfide deposits should be measurable with MC-ICPMS.

### Variations of cell performance in ITO-free organic solar cells with increasing cell areas

Title Variations of cell performance in ITO-free organic solar cells with increasing cell areas
Author: Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Kim, Junkyung & Na, Seok-In
Semiconductor Science and Technology, March 2011
2011
http://stacks.iop.org/0268-1242/26/ia4010?keyossref.706ec37a8fb9e6f3285ca63a7a97eb41
More details:

### Mn incorporation in CuInS2 chalcopyrites: Structure, magnetism and optical properties

Title Mn incorporation in CuInS2 chalcopyrites: Structure, magnetism and optical properties
Author: Yao, Jinlei; Rudyk, Brent W; Brunetta, Carl D; Knorr, Kathyrn B; Figore, Heather A; Mar, Arthur & Aitken, Jennifer A
Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2012
2012
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254058412006244
More details: The Mn-substituted CuInS2 compounds (CuIn1?��xMnxS2 with x?�0?��0.20 and Cu1?��yMnyInS2 with y?�0.05?��0.10) were synthesized using high-temperature solid?��state reactions. Single-phase materials with the chalcopyrite structure persist with up to 10\% of the Cu/In sites being replaced with Mn. The introduction of manganese results in a linear expansion of the lattice parameters as a function of Mn concentration, following Vegard's law. Rietveld refinements on a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data reveal a site preference of Mn for the In site under In-poor conditions and the existence of cation anti-site occupation, CuIn and InCu. The Mn substitution increases the anion displacement, accentuating the cation-anion bond length mismatch. The greater variance in the bond alternation and the addition of Mn d?��S p hybridization near the Fermi level result in a decrease in the bandgap by ?�?0.1?�eV. The CuInS2:Mn compounds display paramagnetic behavior with short-range antiferromagnetic interactions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests the presence of Cu+, Mn2+, and In3+ in the samples. Chalcopyrite,Diamond-like semiconductor,Dilute magnetic semiconductor,Photovoltaic,Solar cell,\{CISU\}

### Semiconductor sensitization of colloidal In2S3 on wide gap semiconductors

Title Semiconductor sensitization of colloidal In2S3 on wide gap semiconductors
Author: Yasaki, Yoichi; Sonoyama, Noriyuki & Sakata, Tadayoshi
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, July 1999
1999
More details: 3,colloidal in 2 s,semiconductor sensitization,spin coating method

### Chapter 6 - Density of Solid ??? Inorganic Compounds

Title Chapter 6 - Density of Solid ?�� Inorganic Compounds
Author: Yaws, Carl L
, Gulf Publishing Company 2014
2014
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323286596000069
More details:
ISBN978-0-323-28659-6

### Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles

Title Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles
Author: Xu, Ying; Al-Salim, Najeh & Tilley, Richard D.
Nanomaterials, January 2012
2012
http://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/2/1/54/
More details: Near-monodispersed water soluble SnS nanoparticles in the diameter range of 3?��6 nm are synthesized by a facile, solution based one-step approach using ethanolamine ligands. The optimal amount of triethanolamine is investigated. The effect of further heat treatment on the size of these SnS nanoparticles is discussed. Diffuse reflectance study of SnS nanoparticles agrees with predictions from quantum confinement model.diffuse reflectance,nanoparticles,tin sulfide,triethanolamine,water soluble

### Electrospinning preparation and room temperature gas sensing properties of porous In2O3 nanotubes and nanowires

Title Electrospinning preparation and room temperature gas sensing properties of porous In2O3 nanotubes and nanowires
Author: Xu, Lin; Dong, Biao; Wang, Yu; Bai, Xue; Liu, Qiong & Song, Hongwei
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400510003229
More details: Porous In2O3 nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs) in cubic phase were fabricated via electrospinning and characterized by scan electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and \{N2\} adsorption experiments. The \{NTs\} had an average outer diameter of ?�?80\&\#xa0;nm and wall thickness of ?�?15\&\#xa0;nm, while the \{NWs\} had a diameter of ?�?120\&\#xa0;nm. The gas sensing properties of the prepared NTs/NWs were measured for H2S. The results demonstrate that the sensors had optimum and high responses to \{H2S\} at room temperature in dilute 1?��100\&\#xa0;ppm concentration range. They also display excellent selectivity, anti-interference and stability. The gas sensing mechanism at room temperature was attributed to the sulfuration of In2O3. The present electrospun In2O3 NTs/NWs have demonstrated the potential applied for \{H2S\} gas detection under room temperature. Electrospinning,Gas sensor,Indium oxide,Nanotubes,Nanowires

### Structural analysis of indium sulphide thin films elaborated by chemical bath deposition

Title Structural analysis of indium sulphide thin films elaborated by chemical bath deposition
Author: Yahmadi, B.; Kamoun, N.; Bennaceur, R.; Mnari, M.; Dachraoui, M. & Abdelkrim, K.
Thin Solid Films, February 2005
2005
More details: chemical bath deposition,heat treatment,indium sulphide,structural analysis

### Effect of potassium hydrogen phthalate (C8H5KO4) on the one-step electrodeposition of single-phase CuInS2 thin films from acidic solution

Title Effect of potassium hydrogen phthalate (C8H5KO4) on the one-step electrodeposition of single-phase CuInS2 thin films from acidic solution
Author: Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Feng; Liu, Jingjun & Ji, Jing
Electrochimica Acta, 2010
2010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001346861000352X
More details: The effect of potassium hydrogen phthalate (C8H5KO4) as a special additive on the one-step electrodeposition of single-phase CuInS2 thin films from acidic solution (pH 2.5) was investigated in detail. The XRD, \{SEM\} and UV?��vis?��NIR characterization confirms that the addition of an adequate concentration of \{C8H5KO4\} (23\&\#xa0;mM) to the electrolytic bath containing 12.5\&\#xa0;mM Cu2+, 10\&\#xa0;mM In3+, 40\&\#xa0;mM S2O32?�� and 100\&\#xa0;mM LiCl can contribute greatly to the controllable growth of pure chalcopyrite CuInS2 films with uniform surfaces and an ideal band gap of approximately 1.54\&\#xa0;eV. Complexation studies of \{C8H5KO4\} with Cu2+ and In3+ in electrolytic solutions indicated that \{C8H5KO4\} can complex Cu2+ more strongly than In3+ and move the electrode potentials of Cu2+ and In3+ near each other as determined by polarization analysis. Furthermore, the potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis performed in a series of solution systems revealed a three-step reaction mechanism for CuInS2 deposition and considerable adsorption of C8H5O4?�� and Cu(C8H5O4)+ to the cathode surface. This deposition shows that the synergetic effects of complexation and adsorption originated from the additive on the Cu2+ electro-reduction, thus promoting the co-deposition of copper, indium and sulfur in the form of single-phase CuInS2. Copper indium disulfide,One-step electrodeposition,Reaction mechanism,\{C8H5KO4\} additive

### Synthesis of CuS thin films by microwave assisted chemical bath deposition

Title Synthesis of CuS thin films by microwave assisted chemical bath deposition
Author: Xin, Mudi; Li, KunWei & Wang, Hao
Applied Surface Science, December 2009
2009
More details:

### Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

Title Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power
Author: Woodyard, James R. & Landis, Geoffrey A.
Solar Cells, 1991
1991
://WOS:A1991GE16600002>://WOS:A1991GE16600002
ISBN0379-6787

### Raman investigations of Cu ( In , Ga ) Se 2 thin fi lms with various copper contents

Title Raman investigations of Cu ( In , Ga ) Se 2 thin fi lms with various copper contents
Author: Witte, Wolfram; Kniese, Robert & Powalla, Michael
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2008
2008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.07.011
More details:

### CIGS thin- fi lm solar cells on steel substrates

Title CIGS thin- fi lm solar cells on steel substrates
Author: Wuerz, R; Eicke, A; Frankenfeld, M; Kessler, F; Powalla, M; Rogin, P & Yazdani-assl, O
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.016
More details:

### Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on AIT-Textured Glass Superstrates

Title Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on AIT-Textured Glass Superstrates
Author: Widenborg, Per I. & Aberle, Armin G.
2007
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aoe/2007/024584/abs/
More details:

### Chapter 2 - \CONCEPTUAL\ \MODELS\ \IN\ \GEOLOGY\

Title Chapter 2 - \CONCEPTUAL\ \MODELS\ \IN\ \GEOLOGY\
Author: WOLF, KARL H
, Elsevier 1976
1976
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978044441401450006X
More details:
ISBN978-0-444-41401-4

### The geochemistry of the volatile trace elements As, Cd, Ga, In and Sn in the Earth???s mantle: New evidence from in situ analyses of mantle xenoliths

Title The geochemistry of the volatile trace elements As, Cd, Ga, In and Sn in the Earth?��s mantle: New evidence from in situ analyses of mantle xenoliths
Author: Witt-Eickschen, G; Palme, H; O?��Neill, H.St.C. & Allen, C M
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016703708007679
More details: The abundances of 30 trace elements, including the volatile chalcophile/siderophile elements As, Cd, Ga, In and Sn were determined by laser ablation ICP-MS in minerals of 19 anhydrous and 5 hydrous spinel peridotite xenoliths from three continents. The majority of samples were fertile lherzolites with more than 5\% clinopyroxene; several samples have major element compositions close to estimates of the primitive mantle. All samples have been previously analysed for bulk-rock major, minor and lithophile trace elements. They cover a wide range of equilibration temperatures from about 850 to 1250\&\#xa0;??C and a pressure range from 0.8 to 3.0\&\#xa0;GPa. A comparison of results from bulk-rock analyses with concentrations obtained from combining silicate and oxide mineral data with modal mineralogy, gave excellent agreement, with the exception of As. Arsenic is the only element analysed that has high concentrations in sulphides. For all other elements sulphides can be neglected as host phases in these mantle rocks. The major host phase for Cd, In and Sn is clinopyroxene and if present, amphibole. Cadmium and In appear to behave moderately incompatibly during mantle melting similar to Yb. The data yield new and more reliable mantle abundances for Cd (35\&\#xa0;??\&\#xa0;7\&\#xa0;ppb), In (18\&\#xa0;??\&\#xa0;3\&\#xa0;ppb) and Sn (91\&\#xa0;??\&\#xa0;28\&\#xa0;ppb). The In value is similar to the Mg and CI-normalized Zn abundance of the mantle, although In is cosmochemically more volatile than Zn. The high In content suggests a high content of volatile elements in general in proto-Earth material. The lower relative abundances of volatile chalcophile elements such as Cd, S, Se and Te might be explained by sulphide segregation during core formation. The very low relative abundances of volatile and highly incompatible lithophile elements such as Br, Cl and I, and also C, N and rare gases, imply loss during Earth accretion, arguably by collisional erosion from differentiated planetesimals and protoplanets.

### Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces???A review

Title Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces?��A review
Author: Welz, Bernhard; Lepri, F\'{a}bio G; Araujo, Rennan G O; Ferreira, S\'{e}rgio L C; Huang, Mao-Dong; Okruss, Michael & Becker-Ross, Helmut
Analytica Chimica Acta, 2009
2009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000326700900823X
More details: The literature about the investigation of molecular spectra of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens in flames and furnaces, and the use of these spectra for the determination of these non-metals has been reviewed. Most of the investigations were carried out using conventional atomic absorption spectrometers, and there were in essence two different approaches. In the first one, dual-channel spectrometers with a hydrogen or deuterium lamp were used, applying the two-line method for background correction; in the second one, a line source was used that emitted an atomic line, which overlapped with the molecular spectrum. The first approach had the advantage that any spectral interval could be accessed, but it was susceptible to spectral interference; the second one had the advantage that the conventional background correction systems could be used to minimize spectral interferences, but had the problem that an atomic line had to be found, which was overlapping sufficiently well with the maximum of the molecular absorption spectrum. More recently a variety of molecular absorption spectra were investigated using a low-resolution polychromator with a \{CCD\} array detector, but no attempt was made to use this approach for quantitative determination of non-metals. The recent introduction and commercial availability of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometers is offering completely new possibilities for molecular absorption spectrometry and its use for the determination of non-metals. The use of a high-intensity continuum source together with a high-resolution spectrometer and a \{CCD\} array detector makes possible selecting the optimum wavelength for the determination and to exclude most spectral interferences. Halogens,Molecular absorption spectrometry,Non-metals determination,Phosphorus,Sulfur

### A pressure-induced nonlayered structure of indium monoselenide

Title A pressure-induced nonlayered structure of indium monoselenide
Author: Watanabe, Yousuke; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Noritaka & Nishina, Yuichiro
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022459682902237
More details: An X-ray diffraction study was made on a new polymorphic phase of InSe obtained by heating a layered crystal of the 3R($\gamma$) polytype under pressures of 40 and 50 kbar and by quenching to ambient conditions. An analysis of the diffraction intensity data collected on precession and Debye photographs gave a monoclinic structure (space group C12h) with four molecules in a unit cell. Upon transformation, new, short interatomic distances characteristic of covalent bonding are formed between indium and selenium atoms that were originally located in the adjacent layers. The structure is regarded as a modified version of the nonlayered InS-type structure. In the real structure of the high-pressure phase, however, there is a small amount of disorder in the orientation of the In?�?In bonds. Discussion is given on the reconstructive, layer-nonlayer transformation of InSe.

### Dye-Sensitized TiO 2 Nanotube Solar Cells with Markedly Enhanced Performance via Rational Surface Engineering

Title Dye-Sensitized TiO 2 Nanotube Solar Cells with Markedly Enhanced Performance via Rational Surface Engineering
Author: Wang, Jun & Lin, Zhiqun
Chemistry of Materials, January 2010
2010
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cm903164k
More details:

### Quantum oscillations in the ultrasonic attenuation in chromium

Title Quantum oscillations in the ultrasonic attenuation in chromium
Author: Wallace, W D; Tepley, N; Bohm, H V & Shapira, Y
Physics Letters, 1965
1965
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031916365904713
More details:

### Chemical transport of restricted solid solutions of In2O3 and SnO2: experiments and thermodynamic process analysis

Title Chemical transport of restricted solid solutions of In2O3 and SnO2: experiments and thermodynamic process analysis
Author: Werner, J; Behr, G; Bieger, W & Krabbes, G
Journal of Crystal Growth, 1996
1996
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022024896001959
More details: The preparation of mutual dissoluted In2O3SnO2 single crystals by the chemical transport method has been investigated. The transport reactions were performed using either iodine and sulphur simultaneously or chlorine as transporting agents and a mixture of pure oxides (4N) as source material. The highest concentration values of dissolved oxide were obtained after a sequential transport starting from a two phase region from 1250 to 1200 K. In this case, the maximum solubilities have been determined, indium oxide crystals with 8.2 mol\% tin oxide and tin oxide crystals with 2.4 mol\% indium oxide were grown. The experiments were explained with thermodynamical process calculations introducing the description of the solid phases as regular solid solutions consisting of nonstoichiometric binary oxides.

### Asynchronous-pulse ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition of CuxS (x=1, 2) thin films

Title Asynchronous-pulse ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition of CuxS (x 2) thin films
Author: Wang, Sheng-Yue; Wang, Wei & Lu, Zu-Hong
Materials Science and Engineering: B, October 2003
2003
More details: copper sulfide,deposition process,pyrolysis,thin films

### Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4

Title Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4
Author: Wang, Hongxia
International Journal of Photoenergy, 2011
2011
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2011/801292/
More details: The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in thosematerials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbersmade fromearth abundant, environment benignmaterials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and has attracted considerable interest recently. Significant progress in this relatively new research area has been achieved in the last three years. Over 130 papers on CZTS have been published since 2007, and the majority of them are on the preparation of CZTS thin films by different methods. This paper, will review the wide range of techniques that have been used to deposit CZTS semiconductor thin films. The performance of the thin film solar cells using the CZTSmaterial will also be discussed.
ISBN1110-662X$\backslash$n1687-529X

### T; Abou-Ras

Title T; Abou-Ras
Author: "Strohm, A; Eisenmann, L; Gebhardt, R K; Harding, A; Schl\"{o}tzer
D & Schock, Ga)Se2-based solar cells. ",","Alternative buffer layers \{EMRS\} 2004 Conference France In2S3
France
Ga)Se2-absorber thin film solar cells. The coevaporation of In and S and the compound-evaporation of In2S3-powder are compared. The production of highly efficient solar cells is only possible under well-defined indium-sulphide growth conditions resulting in high structural order at the buffer/absorber interface and in good process homogeneity and reproducibility. In the present work
More details: InxSyPhotovoltaicsPhysical vapour deposition","," 7,","Su2004","SuYuh-Fan; ChouTse-Chuan; Ling

Interface

### Thin Film Mechanics

Title Thin Film Mechanics
Author: Vlassak, Joost
Harvard University, 2004
2004
http://mrsec.harvard.edu/education/ap298r2004/Vlassak AP298presentation.pdf
More details: 1. Origin of residual stresses in thin films Epitaxial stresses Thermal stresses Intrinsic or growth stresses - surface stress effects - crystallite coalescence - grain growth - vacancy annihilation - effect of impurities - effect of phase transformations - stresses in sputtered films 2. Deformation processes in thin films Grain boundary diffusion controlled creep Dislocation mechanisms

### Thin Film Processes

Title Thin Film Processes
Author: Vossen, J. L.
Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 1980
1980
http://jes.ecsdl.org/cgi/doi/10.1149/1.2130540
More details: This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application
ISBN0127282513

### On the interpretation of solid-state coulometry, used in studies of thin films of copper sulphide

Title On the interpretation of solid-state coulometry, used in studies of thin films of copper sulphide
Author: Vervaet, A; Burgelman, M & Clemminck, I
Journal of materials science letters, 1989
1989
More details:

### Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer

Title Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer
Author: Spiering, S.; Paetel, S.; Kessler, F.; Igalson, M. & Abdel Maksoud, H.
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. November 2014
2014
More details: Buffer layer,Copper indium gallium selenide,Electronic transport,Indium sulphide,Thermal evaporation,copper indium gallium selenide

### An electroanalytical study of chemiplated thin films of copper sulphide

Title An electroanalytical study of chemiplated thin films of copper sulphide
Author: Stiddard, MHB
Journal of materials science, 1987
1987
More details:

### Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\

Title Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\
Author: Spiering, S; Eicke, A; Hariskos, D; Powalla, M; Naghavi, N & Lincot, D
Thin Solid Films, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609003014779
More details: The development of Cd-free buffer layers by vacuum process for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar modules becomes even more interesting regarding environmental aspects and the implementation in industrial production. This work presents the latest results of \{CIGS\} modules with indium sulfide (In2S3) as buffer layer deposited by the atomic layer chemical vapour deposition technique. A module efficiency close to 13\% was realised on the area of 30?�30 cm2 ($\eta$.9\%, VOC'.8 V, FFr.6\%, ISC457 A, aperture area: 714 cm2 and 42 cells). Diffusion processes at the buffer layer interfaces, dependent on deposition temperature and post annealing, have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and sputtered neutral mass spectrometry analysis. Diffusion of Cu and Na into the buffer layer and intermixing of S and Se at the In2S3/CIGS interface have been detected. Atomic layer deposition,Buffer layer,Cd-free,Cu(In,Ga)Se2,In2S3

Proceedings of Symposium D on Thin Film and Nano-Structured Materials for Photovoltaics, of the E-MRS 2003 Spring Conference

### L; Hariskos

Title L; Hariskos
Author: "Spiering, S; B\"{u}rkert
D; Powalla, C & Heuken S.; B\"{u}rkert, L.; Hariskos, D.; Powalla, M.; Dimmler, B.; Giesen, C. & Heuken, M."
S.; B\"{u}rkert, L.; Hariskos, D.; Powalla, M.; Dimmler, B.; Giesen, C. & Heuken, M."
517
More details:

### Improved electrical properties of tin-oxide fi lms by using ultralow-pressure sputtering process

Title Improved electrical properties of tin-oxide fi lms by using ultralow-pressure sputtering process
Author: Soo, Myung; Seop, Bong; Lee, Joohei; Heo, Jaeyeong; Jin, Sang & Yoon, Kapsoo
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.05.051
More details:

### Crystal field effects on the magnetic behavior of Yb2V2O7 and Tm2V2O7

Title Crystal field effects on the magnetic behavior of Yb2V2O7 and Tm2V2O7
Author: Soderholm, Lynne; Stager, C V & Greedan, J E
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022459682902262
More details: The bulk magnetic behaviors of the pyrochlores Yb2V2O7 and Tm2V2O7 were investigated. Calculated susceptibilities were adjusted to obtain the best fit to experimental data. A cubic crystal field Hamiltonian was used with B??4 ��0.633 and B??6 .000705 K for Yb3+ and B??4 .0297 and B??6 .000339 K for Tm3+. The calculated susceptibility for Yb3+ was found to be insensitive to the addition of an axial B??2 parameter to the cubic Hamiltonian.

### Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\

Title Large-area Cd-free \CIGS\ solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by \ALCVD\
Author: Spiering, S; Eicke, A; Hariskos, D; Powalla, M; Naghavi, N & Lincot, D
Thin Solid Films, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609003014779
More details: The development of Cd-free buffer layers by vacuum process for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar modules becomes even more interesting regarding environmental aspects and the implementation in industrial production. This work presents the latest results of \{CIGS\} modules with indium sulfide (In2S3) as buffer layer deposited by the atomic layer chemical vapour deposition technique. A module efficiency close to 13\% was realised on the area of 30?�30 cm2 ($\eta$.9\%, VOC'.8 V, FFr.6\%, ISC457 A, aperture area: 714 cm2 and 42 cells). Diffusion processes at the buffer layer interfaces, dependent on deposition temperature and post annealing, have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and sputtered neutral mass spectrometry analysis. Diffusion of Cu and Na into the buffer layer and intermixing of S and Se at the In2S3/CIGS interface have been detected. Atomic layer deposition,Buffer layer,Cd-free,Cu(In,Ga)Se2,In2S3

Proceedings of Symposium D on Thin Film and Nano-Structured Materials for Photovoltaics, of the E-MRS 2003 Spring Conference

### Optical properties of SnTexSe 1 - x thin films

Title Optical properties of SnTexSe 1 - x thin films
Author: Soliman, L I; Farag, B S; Zayed, H A & Shehata, F M
, 2002
2002
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/24967
More details:

### The spin-flip Raman laser

Title The spin-flip Raman laser
Author: Smith, S D; Dennis, R B & Harrison, R G
Progress in Quantum Electronics, 1977
1977
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0079672779900053
More details:

### Passivation

Title Passivation
Author: Schmutz, Patrik
, ETH 2013
2013
http://www.surface.mat.ethz.ch/education/courses/surfaces\_interfaces\_and\_their\_applications\_II
More details: Although thermodynamically non-noble, many metals and their alloys are in practice resistant to corrosion with equilibrium potentials much higher than their reversible potentials (see the practical potential series, figure 11.17 of Surface, Interfaces, and their Applications I). This behavior is due to a spontaneous formation of a thin protecting oxide layer, the passive layer, as a product of the anodic metal dissolution.CMOS (passivation)

### Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Monosulfide Thin Films

Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Monosulfide Thin Films
Author: Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Heo, Jaeyeong; Noh, Wontae; Hock, Adam S. & Gordon, Roy G.
2011
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/aenm.201100330
More details: Thin film solar cells made from earth-abundant, non-toxic materials are needed to replace the current technology that uses Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 and CdTe, which contain scarce and toxic elements. One promising candidate absorber material is tin monosulfide (SnS). In this report, pure, stoichiometric, singlephase SnS films were obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis( N, N?�?- diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N- i Pr) 2) 2] and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 ??C). The direct optical band gap of SnS is around 1.3 eV and strong optical absorption ($\alpha$\>10 4cm - 1 ) is observed throughout the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The films are p-type semiconductors with carrier concentration on the order of 10 16cm -3 and hole mobility 0.82-15.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in the plane of the films. The electrical properties are anisotropic, with three times higher mobility in the direction through the film, compared to the in-plane direction. ?? 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
ISBN1614-6840

### H.; Zur

Title H.; Zur
Author: "Schoenes, J.; Rode, M.; Schr\"{o}ter
D. & Borgschulte, K","Prospects of high intensity laser driven radiation sources",",,3,","2--4",2009,",",","EIGHTH DAE-BRNS NATIONAL LASER SYMPOSIUM- NLS-08 Invited Talk",",",",",",",",",",",",",",","," 5,","SCHROEDER1973107","SCHROEDER S; Bussmann T; Debus Stephan & Ellmer
T; Debus
A; Kraft
More details: investigated by in situ \EDXRD\","Journal of Crystal Growth",384,0,","114--121",2013,",","http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022024813005927",",",",",",",",",",",",","Abstract Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) has been used to observe in situ the formation of Cu(InGa)S2 (CIGS) films during reactive magnetron co-sputtering. By simultaneous sputtering from a CuGa and an In target in an Ar:H2S atmosphere the \{CIGS\} filmswhich can be used as absorber layers for thin film solar cellscan be grown in a single step without any post-treatments. By carefully analyzing the in situ experimentsseveral effects have been found which should be considered during designing the recipe for an absorber deposition process in order to achieve \{CIGS\} films with the desired stoichiometry and good crystallinity. For instance substrate temperatures below 380\&\#xa0;??C should be used in order to achieve a sufficient condensation of In atoms which is needed to avoid the formation of intermetallic Cu?��Ga phases. Since

Ga)S2 films

### Annealing of indium sulfide thin films prepared at low temperature by modulated flux deposition

Title Annealing of indium sulfide thin films prepared at low temperature by modulated flux deposition
Author: Sanz, C; Guill\'{e}n, C & Herrero, J
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2013
2013
http://stacks.iop.org/0268-1242/28/ia5004?keyossref.c933b00bb22cdd3e1bc65b9bbd1a0a69
More details:

### Preparation and characterization of electron beam evaporated WO3 thin films

Title Preparation and characterization of electron beam evaporated WO3 thin films
Author: Sivakumar, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Jayachandran, M. & Sanjeeviraja, C.
Optical Materials, February 2007
2007
More details: electron beam evaporation,energy band gap,optical properties,smart windows,structural properties,textured nature,wo 3 films

### Semiconducting tin oxide nanowires and thin fi lms for Chemical Warfare Agents detection

Title Semiconducting tin oxide nanowires and thin fi lms for Chemical Warfare Agents detection
Author: Sberveglieri, G; Baratto, C; Comini, E; Faglia, G; Ferroni, M; Pardo, M; Ponzoni, A & Vomiero, A
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.04.004
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### Phase and morphology dependence on the annealing temperature of tin sul fi des and oxides prepared by thermal decomposition of organotin precursors

Title Phase and morphology dependence on the annealing temperature of tin sul fi des and oxides prepared by thermal decomposition of organotin precursors
Author: Siqueira, Guilherme Oliveira; Porto, Arilza De Oliveira; Lima, Geraldo Magela De & Matencio, Tulio
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Elsevier B.V 2012
2012
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2012.05.024
More details:

### Photoluminescence in manganese indium sulphide thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

Title Photoluminescence in manganese indium sulphide thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis
Author: Sharma, R K; Lakshmikumar, S T; Singh, Gurmeet & Rastogi, A C
Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2005
2005
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254058405000313
More details: Photoluminescence measurements on manganese indium sulphide thin films were carried out and the temperature dependence of the Pl emission band was studied. A Gaussian shaped Pl band centered at 535\&\#xa0;nm was observed at 10\&\#xa0;K. A study on the variation of InCl3 concentration in spray solution over the Pl energy band position and shape suggests that varying InCl3 concentration in the solution or by changing the In3+ composition in the film during growth does not affect Pl maxima position on energy axis whereas a reduction in the Pl peak intensity was noticed with decreasing InCl3 solution concentration. Based on the luminescence data donor level height in the manganese indium sulphide energy gap was estimated and found to be around 20\&\#xa0;meV; that again on reduction in InCl3 concentration in solution found to decreases marginally. MnIn2S4,Photoluminescence,Spray deposition,Thin film

### Electrical conductivity and minority carrier diffusion in thermally oxidized PbTe thin films

Title Electrical conductivity and minority carrier diffusion in thermally oxidized PbTe thin films
Author: Shufer, E; Dashevsky, Z; Kasiyan, V; Flitsiyan, E; Chernyak, L & Gartsman, K
Physica B: Condensed Matter, Elsevier February 2010
2010
More details: EBIC effect,Lead telluride film,Thermal oxidation,Transport properties

### The history, design, fabrication and performance of CdS thin film solar cells

Title The history, design, fabrication and performance of CdS thin film solar cells
Author: Shirland, Fred a.
1966
More details:

### The geochemistry of gallium, indium, thallium???a review

Title The geochemistry of gallium, indium, thallium?��a review
Author: Shaw, Denis M
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 1957
1957
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0079194657900095
More details:

### Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells

Title Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells
Author: Shockley, William & Queisser, Hans J
Journal of Applied Physics, 1961
1961
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/32/3/10.1063/1.1736034
More details:

### Growth phases in the formation of semiconducting manganese indium sulphide thin film and their effect on the optical absorption

Title Growth phases in the formation of semiconducting manganese indium sulphide thin film and their effect on the optical absorption
Author: Sharma, R K; Rastogi, A C; Kohli, Sandeep; Kang, Tae Won & Singh, Gurmeet
Physica B: Condensed Matter, 2004
2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921452604006751
More details: Manganese indium sulphide (MnInxS4) thin films within x range 2.0???x???1.0 were deposited by a simple chemical spray pyrolysis using an aqueous solution of MnCl2, InCl3 and (NH2)2CS in 1:2:4 molar ratio. X-ray diffraction on these films revealed the formation of cubic MnIn2S4 along with the secondary phases MnS2, In2S3, and InS. It has been observed that the concentration of InCl3 in solution affects the manganese indium sulphide film properties causing [Mn] deficiency on its reduction in the spray solution. As evidenced by X-ray diffraction studies InCl3, concentration in the spray solution affects the occurrence of free secondary phases of manganese sulphide and indium sulphide, leading to a wide variation in optical properties of the films. A variation in optical energy gap from 3.1 to 1.9\&\#xa0;eV for as-deposited MnInxS4 films has been observed within 2.0???x???1.0 spray solution composition. A further reduction in the optical band gap up to 0.80\&\#xa0;eV has been observed at post-deposition annealing under \{N2\} and \{H2S\} ambient atmosphere. MnIn2S4,Spray deposition,Ternary semiconductor

### Growth , structural and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation method

Title Growth , structural and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation method
Author: Shah, N M; Panchal, C J; Kheraj, V A; Ray, J R & Desai, M S
Solar Energy, Elsevier Ltd 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2008.11.006
More details: atomic force microscopy,cuinse 2 thin film,energy dispersive x-ray analysis,thermal evaporation,transmission meas-,x-ray diffraction
ISBN9825094761

### Thin-film silicon solar cells: A review and selected trends

Title Thin-film silicon solar cells: A review and selected trends
Author: Shah, A
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 1995
1995
More details: A case is developed for considering silicon as the prime medium-term candidate for semiconductor photovoltaic cells; the argumentation is based on other materials not being abundantly available, highly toxic and or very expensive. Crystalline silicon solar cells have excellent efficiencies, however, according to data presented by the authors on material fluxes and energy consumpiton there are serious bottlenecks for this technique with respect to future large-scale applications both from an economical as well as from an ecological point of view. Thus, the authors consider thin-film silicon solar cells as the main option for large-scale energy applications in the foreseeable future. Thin-film silicon solar cells are either polycrystalline or amorphous. The first category is gaining in interest at this moment, but major technological problems remain unresolved, e.g., growth of a highly-quality crystalline structure on foreing (low-cost) substrates, reduction of deposition temperature and increase of deposition rate. Teh second category has so far yielded only limited stable efficienies, although progress has been recently achieved in improving the stability of solar cells using stacked or tandem/triple structures. Novel approaches to further improve the stable efficiencies, such as using low-level doping profiles within the i-layer of the p-i-n solar cell, are listed. Entirely microcrystalline p-i-n solar cells that are stable and can be deposited at low temperatures (220 celsius degrees) with rates up to 1 angstrom/s by the VHF plasma deposition technique are described as further, recent contribution to thin-film silicon photovoltaic technology.

### Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films

Title Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films
Author: Sharma, M K; Gayen, R N; Pal, A K; Kanjilal, D & Chatterjee, Ratnamala
Solid State Communications, Elsevier Ltd 2011
2011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2011.04.028
More details:

### Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films

Title Complex impedance spectroscopy of Mn-doped zinc oxide nanorod films
Author: Sharma, M K; Gayen, R N; Pal, A K; Kanjilal, D & Chatterjee, Ratnamala
Solid State Communications, Elsevier Ltd 2011
2011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2011.04.028
More details:

### Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology

Title Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology
Author: Shah, \{AV\}; Schade, H; Vanecek, M & Meier, J
Progress in \ldots, 2004
2004
http://159.226.64.60/fckeditor/UserFiles/File/tyndc/reference/19938777866047.pdf$\backslash$npapers2://publication/uuid/759B7C7C-296B-4CE2-A937-775C2C98E4BA$\backslash$npapers2://publication/doi/10.1002/pip.533)
More details: This paper describes the use, within p?��i?��n- and n?��i?��p-type cells, of hydro- genated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ( c-Si:H) thin films (layers), both deposited at low temperatures (200 C) by plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (PECVD),

### Structural , electrical , and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin fi lm prepared by thermal evaporation method

Title Structural , electrical , and optical properties of copper indium diselenide thin fi lm prepared by thermal evaporation method
Author: Shah, N M; Ray, J R; Patel, K J; Kheraj, V A; Desai, M S; Panchal, C J & Rehani, Bharti
Thin Solid Films, Elsevier B.V. 2009
2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.133
More details: copper indium diselenide thin,fi lm
ISBN9825094761

### FTIR Reflection Techniques

Title FTIR Reflection Techniques
, 2012
2012
http://www.vscht.cz/anl/vibspec/FTIR Reflection Techniques.pdf$\backslash$npapers2://publication/uuid/DDE2E194-3D0F-4DD7-864A-9F277CECBB02
More details:

### Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition

Title Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition
Author: Serin, N; Serin, T; Horzum, ?? & Celik, Y
Semiconductor science and \ldots, 2005
2005
http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/20/5/012
More details: annealing,deposition,optical property,thin film

### 3.07 - Gallium, Indium, and Thallium, Excluding Transition Metal Derivatives

Title 3.07 - Gallium, Indium, and Thallium, Excluding Transition Metal Derivatives
Author: Schulz, S
, Elsevier 2007
2007
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080450474000480
More details: This chapter deals with the synthesis of organometallic compounds of the group 13 elements Ga, In, and Tl, which contain at least one metal?��carbon or metal?��hydrogen bond. An overview about general synthetic pathways is given and their structures and reactivity are discussed. The current chapter not only reviews group 13 organometallics in the typical oxidation state \{III\} but also emphasizes on the synthesis and reactivity of low-valent complexes, which were almost unknown 10 years ago. In addition, heteroatomic compounds of groups 15 and 16 are discussed. Cluster,Double bonding,Heterocycles,Hexeles,Low-valent complexes,Metalloid,Monomers,Penteles
ISBN978-0-08-045047-6

### Pyrochlore-related phases in the lead oxide-tantalum oxide system

Title Pyrochlore-related phases in the lead oxide-tantalum oxide system
Author: Scott, H G
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 1982
1982
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022459682902225
More details: Pyrochlore-related phases in the PbO?�?Ta2O5 system were reinvestigated. Three such phases are described: cubic Pb1.5Ta2O6.5 with a narrow range of composition, rhombohedral Pb22Ta18O67, and orthorhombic Pb14Ta10O39. A new pyrochlore-related structure is proposed for the orthorhombic phase. There is also a range of rhombohedral solid solution, which may be metastable only. The existence of the previously reported Pb2Ta2O7 is not confirmed.